湯姆‧科頓議員報告(五)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

五月花寫作組 | 翻譯:jiasen | 校對:虹陵 | 編輯:jamie(文胤) | 美工、發稿:滅共小宇宙

往期鏈接:

湯姆‧科頓議員報告序言——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

湯姆‧克頓議員報告(一)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

湯姆‧克頓議員報告(二)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

湯姆‧科頓議員報告(三)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》

湯姆‧科頓議員報告(四)——《戰勝中共國:針對性脫鉤與經濟持久戰》


KNOWLEDGE 

知識

Knowledge, innovation, and technology are force multipliers that allow a country of 330 million people to compete against a country of 1.4 billion people. The United States will be unable to compete against China over the long run if it doesn’t retain a decisive—and proprietary—edge in science, technology, innovation, and development. China understands the importance of knowledge in driving outcomes, which is why it has been working for decades to reach the cutting edge of scientific and technological disciplines—whether by innovation or theft. This campaign has yielded results. In some areas, including quantum computing, China has reached the frontier of technical knowledge, and is now pressing ahead of the pack as an innovator. 

知識,創新,和技術是力量倍增器,使3.3億人口的國家與14億人口的國家競爭。如果美國不能在科學,技術,創新和研發方面保持決定性和獨有的優勢,那麼從長遠來看,美國將無法與中共國競爭。中共國清楚知識對推動成果的重要性,這就是為什麼數十年來,無論是通過創新還是盜竊,它一直致力於達到科學技術各個學科的最前沿。這一努力取得了成果。 在某些領域,包括量子計算,中共國已經到達了技術知識的前沿,並且正以創新者的身份努力處於領先地位。

The Chinese government prioritizes acquiring knowledge—specifically, American knowledge— in its economic, technological, and intelligence-gathering strategies. This priority is evident in China’s systematic and largely successful infiltration of American knowledge institutions, such as U.S. colleges and universities, research labs, and private companies. The United States must treat these institutions, and the knowledge they generate, as key national assets. America’s economic edge depends on it. 

中共政府在其經濟,技術,和情報收集策略中優先考慮獲取知識,尤其是來自美國的知識。在中共國對美國的學院,大學,研究性實驗室,和私人公司等美國知識機構的系統化和很大程度上相當成功的滲透活動中,這一優先的任務顯而易見。美國必須將這些機構,及它們產生的知識視為關鍵的國家資產。美國的經濟優勢依賴於此。

Higher Education 

高等教育

China acquires American technology and know-how prior to its commercialization and deployment by infiltrating the U.S. higher-education system and research laboratories. In 2018- 19, roughly 370,000 Chinese students studied in the United States, up from fewer than 100,000 a decade earlier. Nearly half of these students are enrolled in STEM courses, which are of special relevance to any nation’s technological and military advancement. U.S. universities trained some of the Chinese military’s top minds. One report found that the Chinese military sponsored more than 2,500 scientists and engineers to study abroad in the past decade, with an estimated 500 of these individuals conducting research in the United States. The American footprint in Chinese higher education is, by comparison, trivial. 

在商業化和部署之前,中共國通過滲透美國的高等教育系統和研究性實驗室,獲得美國的技術和專有知識。在2018-19學年,大約37萬名中共國學生在美國學習,而十年前只有不到10萬名學生。這些學生中將近一半就讀於STEM(科學、技術、工程、數學)課程,這些專業與任何國家的技術和軍事進步都息息相關。美國大學培養了一些中共國軍方的頂尖人才。一份報告發現,中共國軍方在過去的十年中贊助了2500多名科學家和工程師到國外學習,估計其中有500人在美國從事研究工作。相比之下,美國人在中共國高等教育中的足跡則微不足道。

Unfortunately, American citizens and legal permanent residents are sometimes agents of Beijing’s economic espionage. The CCP has created over 200 foreign talent recruitment programs that offer salaries, research funding, and lab space, among other incentives, to entice U.S.-based scientists and engineers to turn over the fruits of their research. The Department of Justice has charged a number of American scientists for lying about their ties to the Thousand Talents Program, China’s most prominent foreign talent initiative. For example, Charles Lieber, chair of Harvard’s chemistry department and a world-renowned leader in the field of nanoscale electronics, signed on to be a “strategic scientist” at China’s Wuhan University of Technology. For his participation, the CCP allegedly gave Lieber $50,000 a month, a $150,000 annual stipend, and a laboratory in Wuhan worth more than $1.5 million. Lieber now faces federal charges for hiding the full scale of his financial ties to China. U.S. officials announced Lieber’s charges on the same day as charges against another Harvard researcher, Zaosong Zheng, who was caught attempting to transport 21 stolen vials of cells to China. 

不幸的是,有些時候,中共國經濟間諜活動的代理人是美國公民和合法永久居民。中共已經建立了200多個外國人才招聘計劃,以提供薪水,研究經費,實驗室空間,以及其他激勵措施,來吸引美國的科學家和工程師將研究成果交給中共。許多美國的科學家因在解釋與中國最著名的外國人才計劃,即“千人計劃”之間的關系時說謊,而受到司法部的指控。例如,哈佛大學化學系主任,納米級電子領域的世界知名專家查爾斯·利伯(Charles Lieber)曾經簽約成為中共國武漢理工大學的“戰略科學家”。據稱,中共為吸引利伯的參與,為他提供了以下條件:每月5萬美元的工資,每年15萬美元的津貼,以及位於武漢超過150萬美元的實驗室。利伯目前因隱藏與中共國的全部金融關系而面臨聯邦指控。美國官員在宣佈對利伯的指控的同一天,宣佈了對另一名哈佛研究員鄭竈松的指控,而鄭竈松試圖將盜走的21小瓶細胞帶回中共國。

National security officials have warned repeatedly of the threat posed by Beijing’s “non traditional collectors” on U.S. college campuses. In July 2020, the FBI announced it was investigating almost 2,500 cases of Chinese espionage and intellectual property theft. Such cases occupied the time and resources of every FBI field office and comprised roughly half of the FBI’s counterintelligence cases.59 These warnings have largely fallen on deaf ears in academia.  

國家安全官員多次警告中共國的“非傳統情報收集員”對美國大學校園構成的威脅。2020年7月,聯邦調查局宣佈,它正在調查近2500起中共國間諜和知識產權盜竊案。這些案件占用了聯邦調查局每個駐地辦事處的時間和資源,約占聯邦調查局反情報案件的一半。而學術界對這些警告基本是充耳不聞。

The CCP’s penetration of American higher education has encountered little resistance from American faculty and administrators who depend on full-freight tuition payments of international students. Take a recent case at Boston University, where a People’s Liberation Army (PLA) officer embedded within a laboratory conducting cutting-edge artificial intelligence research with a renowned physicist. When authorities uncovered the plot in January 2020, the physicist stated he was “not interested in politics…If a person anywhere in the world wants to come to my group, and they have the money to come, I say why not?” According to that physicist’s resume, roughly 75 of the more than 200 research associates and visiting scientists that worked in his labs were from China.

中共對美國高等教育的滲透幾乎沒有受到任何來自美國教職和管理人員的阻力,美國高校依賴國際學生的全額學費。以波士頓大學最近的一個案例為例,一名人民解放軍(PLA)官員隱藏在一個實驗室中,該實驗室與一位著名的物理學家進行著尖端的人工智慧研究。當局於2020年1月發現該陰謀時,這位物理學家表示他“對政治不感興趣……如果世界上任何地方的人想加入我的團隊,而他們有錢帶來,我說,為什麼不?” 該物理學家的簡歷顯示,在他實驗室工作的200多名研究人員和訪問科學家中,大約有75名來自中共國。

These cases are the tip of the iceberg. China’s dark money permeates U.S. higher education. The Department of Education opened investigations into both Harvard and Yale in February 2020 as part of a review that indicates U.S. universities had not reported at least $6.5 billion in foreign funding, including funding from China.These investigations followed similar inquiries into Georgetown University, Cornell University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

這些案例只是冰山一角。 中共國的黑錢滲入了美國的高等教育界。教育部於2020年2月對哈佛和耶魯進行了調查,這是一項審查的一部分,該審查表明美國大學沒有報告的外國資金至少有65億美元,包括來自中共國的資金。針對喬治敦大學,康奈爾大學和麻省理工學院,也有類似的調查。

Corporate and National Laboratories 

企業和國家實驗室

China’s drive to infiltrate U.S. research institutions extends to our most sensitive laboratories.  The Department of Energy (DOE), which oversees 17 national laboratories and the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, is fighting Chinese efforts to recruit its researchers. Investigators have exposed evidence of Chinese recruitment and penetration within the government. In May 2019, for instance, a former scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was indicted for making false statements about his alleged involvement in a Chinese recruitment program. This came after an employee of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration pleaded guilty to illegally accepting money from a Chinese recruitment program.

中共國滲透美國研究機構的努力擴展到了我們最敏感的實驗室。能源部(DOE)監督著17個國家實驗室和美國的核武器庫,它正在與中共國招募其研究人員的努力作鬥爭。調查人員揭露了中共國的招募和滲透到政府內部的證據。例如,在2019年5月,洛斯阿拉莫斯國家實驗室的一位前科學家因對被指捲入中共國招募計劃做出虛假陳述而被起訴。在此之前,國家海洋與大氣管理局的一名雇員對非法接受中共國招募計劃的款項表示認罪。

The Thousand Talents Program also recruits through professional associations for Chinese engineers such as the Silicon Valley Chinese Engineers, the Hua Yuan Science & Technology Association (HYSTA), and the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST). According to one analysis, Silicon Valley is “ground [zero] for…legal, illegal and quasi-legal practices that fall just below the thresholds set by U.S. law.”  

千人計劃還通過華人工程師的專業協會招募人才,例如“矽谷華人工程師協會”,“華源科技協會”(HYSTA),和“中國科技協會”(CAST)。根據一項分析,矽谷是“合法的,非法的和準合法的行為的‘發源地’,這些行為都低於美國法律所設定的底線。”

China has made infiltrating, manipulating, and exploiting U.S. research organs a central plank of its economic and military strategy. Today, China wields immense, if hidden, power within American higher education and the U.S. research-innovation complex. The full depth and breadth of this influence is unknown. However, the CCP has publicly pledged more than $2 trillion to acquire top talent in support of its strategy to dominate key emerging technologies. This figure provides a sense of the scope, scale, and seriousness of the CCP’s science and technology efforts.  

中共國已經將滲透,操縱和利用美國研究機構作為其經濟和軍事戰略的核心內容。今天,中共國在美國的高等教育和美國研發創新領域擁有著巨大的力量,即使它是隱藏的。這種影響的真正的深度和廣度尚不清楚。然而,中共已公開承諾提供超過2萬億美元的資金,以獲取頂尖人才來支持其主導關鍵新興技術的戰略。這個數字提供了對中共科技野心的範圍,規模和嚴重性的認識。

Labor Force 

勞動力

Chinese nationals play an outsized role at U.S. technology firms such as Apple, Amazon, Google, and Facebook, in part because of their access to U.S. higher-education institutions and focus on STEM education. In FY2019, the U.S. government issued 50,609 H-1B visas to specialized Chinese workers, making China the second-most represented country after India.  Sixty-six percent of H-1B visas granted in FY2019 were for computer-related fields.  

中共國公民在蘋果、亞馬遜、谷歌和臉書等美國科技公司中扮演著舉足輕重的角色,部分原因是他們可以進入美國高等教育機構並專註於STEM教育。2019財年,美國政府向中共國專業工人發放了50,609份H-1B簽證,使中共國成為僅次於印度的第二大代表性國家。  2019財年批準的H-1B簽證中有66%是計算機相關領域。

The United States relies heavily on foreign workers in high-technology sectors, partly due to the crisis in STEM education in America. The number of U.S. citizens enrolled in upper level science and engineering programs is in steady decline. The United States ranked 18th in science and 37th in math out of 77 countries on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2018. The United States places 13th in science and 31st in math within the 37-state Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

美國在高科技領域嚴重依賴外國人工,部分原因是美國STEM領域的教育危機。註冊高等科學和工程課程的美國公民數量正在穩步下降。在2018年的國際學生能力評估計劃(PISA)中,在77個國家中,美國在科學領域排名是第18位,數學領域排名是第37位。在37個國家的經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)中,美國在科學領域排名第13位,在數學領域排名第31位。

The unique risk of espionage posed by Chinese nationals must be acknowledged when evaluating the cost and benefit of accepting foreign workers. From 2011-18, 90 percent of the Department of Justice’s cases alleging economic espionage involving a state actor concerned China, as did more than two-thirds of its cases alleging theft of trade secrets. Economic espionage cases with a connection to China have increased by roughly 1,300 percent over the past decade. While some of these cases involve China’s relentless cyberespionage, a significant portion involve physical theft by workers operating on U.S. soil. Recent examples of this practice include a Chinese scientist who stole hundreds of genetically engineered rice seeds with direct pharmaceutical applications from a U.S. research facility and a Chinese born employee at Raytheon who was caught smuggling top-secret missile-defense technology to China.

在評估接受外國人工的成本和收益時,必須認識到中共國國民間諜活動的特別風險。從2011到18年,美國司法部90%涉嫌經濟間諜活動的案件牽涉到與中國有關的國家行為,三分之二以上涉嫌盜竊商業秘密的案件也與中國有關。在過去十年,與中共國有關的經濟間諜案件增加了大約1300%。盡管其中一些案件與中國的不懈的網路間諜活動有關,但很大一部分涉及在美國土地上作業的人員的偷竊行為。最近發生的案例包括:一名中共國科學家從美國一家研究機構偷走了數百種具有直接制藥用途的轉基因水稻種子,以及雷神公司(Raytheon)一名中共國出生的雇員向中共國走私絕密的導彈防禦技術被抓捕。

In the words of a recent White House report, “Law enforcement efforts alone cannot keep up with (or adequately deter) a state sponsored campaign of theft.” The United States must take more aggressive action to limit the number of Chinese nationals working in sensitive positions in U.S. laboratories and companies. 

用白宮最近的一份報告的話來說,“僅靠執法不能跟上(或充分阻止)一個國家資助的盜竊活動。” 美國必須採取更加積極的行動來限制中共國公民在美國實驗室和公司中的敏感職位的數量。


原文鏈接:

Beat China: Targeted Decoupling and the Economic Long War


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