眾議院預算委員會 :《1974 年截留控制法案》是什麼?為何重要?(中英對照版)

摘要:

本文為眾議院預算會在2019年10月發佈的對於《1974 年截留控制法案》的說明,解釋法案出臺的背景、目的和法案對總統撤銷和延期預算的限制性規定,強調了法案目前的重要性。

Title: The Impoundment Control Act of 1974: What Is It? Why Does It Matter?

題目:《1974 年截留控制法案》是什麼?為何重要?

What is the Impoundment Control Act?

The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (ICA) reasserted Congress’ power of the purse. Specifically, Title X of the Act – “Impoundment Control” – established procedures to prevent the President and other government officials from unilaterally substituting their own funding decisions for those of the Congress. The Act also created the House and Senate Budget Committees and the Congressional Budget Office.

《截留控制法案》是什麼?

《1974年國會預算和截留控制法案》(以下簡稱ICA)強調國會對“錢袋子”的控制權,特別是法案中的X條款-“截留控制”-建立了如何阻止總統和其他政府官員單方面替代國會對資金使用決定權的程式。該法案同時創設了參眾兩院的預算委員會和眾議院預算辦公室。

Why was the ICA necessary?

Congress passed the ICA in response to President Nixon’s executive overreach – his Administration refused to release Congressionally appropriated funds for certain programs he opposed. While the U.S. Constitution broadly grants Congress the power of the purse, the President – through the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and executive agencies – is responsible for the actual spending of funds. The ICA created a process the President must follow if he or she seeks to delay or cancel funding that Congress has provided.

為什麼ICA法案是必要的?

國會通過ICA法案是應對尼克森總統行政權力的擴張-他的政府拒絕為他反對的一些項目釋放國會所分配的資金。美國憲法將 “錢袋子”控制權大部分賦予國會,而總統-則是通過白宮管理與預算辦公室(OMB)和行政機構-負責實際實施預算。ICA法案創設了總統若試圖延緩或取消國會所提供的預算時應遵從的程式。

What does it mean to impound funds?

An “impoundment” is any action – or inaction – by an officer or employee of the federal government that precludes federal funds from being obligated1 or spent, either temporarily or permanently.

“截留”資金的含義是什麼?

“截留”是指聯邦政府的官員或者雇員任何主動作為或者被動不作為,暫時或者永久的阻止聯邦資金法定支付義務或使用的行為。

How does the ICA work?

The ICA lays out procedures the President must follow to reduce, delay, or eliminate funding in an account. The Act divides impoundments into two categories: rescissions and deferrals.

ICA法案怎樣運作?

ICA法案制定了總統在減少、延期或者取消帳戶資金時應遵從的一套程式。該法案將截留分為兩類:撤銷和延期。

Rescissions

Put simply, if the President wants to spend less money than Congress provided for a particular purpose, he or she must first secure a law providing Congressional approval to rescind the funding in question. The ICA requires that the President send a special message to Congress

identifying the amount of the proposed rescission; the reasons for it; and the budgetary, economic, and programmatic effects of the rescission. Upon transmission of such special message, the President may withhold certain funding in the affected accounts for up to 45 legislative session days. If a law approving the rescission is not enacted within the 45 days, any withheld funds must be made available for obligation.

A 2018 Government Accountability Office legal opinion holds that if the President proposes a rescission, he or she must make the affected funds available to be prudently obligated before the funds expire, even if the 45-day clock is still running. This means, for example, that the President cannot strategically time a rescission request for late in the fiscal year and withhold the funding until it expires, thus achieving a rescission without Congressional approval.

撤銷

簡而言之,若總統為特定目的希望減少使用國會撥付款項,總統應首先確保撤銷的問題資金有法律依據並提交國會同意。ICA法案要求總統應特別致信國會:

明確所提議的取消金額,取消原因,取消對預算、經濟和計畫等方面的影響。在發出此特別信函後,總統可以在45個國會工作日內截留受控帳戶的相關資金。若在45日內,同意取消的法律未獲通過,所截留的全部資金將履行義務支付。

2018年政府問責辦公室法律意見書認為,若總統提出撤銷,儘管45天的截留期限尚未到期,總統也必須在資金過期前將受影響的資金按義務審慎撥付,這就是說,例如,總統不能在財政年度的末期戰略性提出撤銷的請求,截留資金直至過期,以達到不經國會同意撤銷資金的目的。

Deferrals

The ICA defines a “deferral” as withholding, delaying, or – through other Executive action or inaction – effectively precluding funding from being obligated or spent. The ICA prescribes three narrow circumstances in which the President may propose to defer funding for a program: (1) providing for contingencies; (2) achieving budgetary savings made possible through improved operational efficiency; and (3) as specifically provided by law.

The ICA requires that the President send a special message to Congress identifying the amount of the proposed deferral; the reasons for it; and the period of the proposed deferral. Upon transmission of such special message, the funds may be deferred without further action by Congress; however, the deferral cannot extend beyond the end of the fiscal year in which the special message is sent. The ICA language on deferrals is long-standing budget law that allows the Executive branch to delay the obligation or expenditure of funding only for the specified reasons rather than policy reasons.

延期

ICA法案把延期界定為截留,拖延或者通過其他的行政作為或者不作為的方式實質性的阻止資金撥付給法定義務支付物件或者使用。ICA法案設定了總統可能延期專案支付的三種有限方式:(1)可能出現的危機事件;(2)通過提升實施效率節省預算開支;(3)法律規定的特殊事項。

ICA法案要求總統向國會應特別致信國會:明確所提議延期支付的金額;延期支付原因和延期支付的時限。在發出該特別信函後,在國會沒有採取進一步行動前,該資金可以被延期支付;但是,延期不能超過特別信函發出年份的財政年度結束日期。ICA法案關於延期的用語是延長預算法,該法律允許行政部門基於特定的理由而不是政策原因延期支付資金。

Why is the ICA important?

Today, 45 years after the ICA became law, Congress once again confronts a President attempting to push past the long-recognized boundaries of executive budgetary power. This year, for the second straight year, the Trump Administration reportedly considered issuing rescission requests for certain foreign aid and security assistance accounts less than 45 days before the end of the fiscal year, when the funds in question would expire. In the closing weeks of fiscal 2019, OMB withheld funding in these accounts in a manner inconsistent with longstanding procedures and policies. The House Budget and Appropriations Committees have serious concerns that President Trump and his administration violated the ICA in withholding these funds. The committees are examining when, why, and how these funds were withheld; and whether these actions prevented agencies from spending the full amount that Congress provided for these activities, thus thwarting the will of Congress. Congress will not bend to executive overreach. It will defend its constitutional power of the purse and the fundamental checks and balances that are critical to our constitutional republic.

ICA法案為什麼重要?

在ICA法案通過後45年的今天,國會再次面對一位希望突破長期認可的行政權力邊界的總統。今年,也是連續了兩年,川普政府據稱將在本財年結束不足45天時提出將一些對外援助和安全協助資金項目撤銷的要求,這些有問題的資金即將過期。在2019年財政年度即將結束的最後幾周,管理與預算局截留這些帳戶資金與長期以來的程式和政策不符。眾議院預算與撥款委員會對川普總統和他的行政團隊違反ICA法案表示深切憂慮。委員會正在審查這些截留資金是什麼時候,是什麼原因和是怎樣被截留的,和這些行動是不是阻礙了相關機構全數使用國會為其活動所提供的資金,因而阻擾國會意願。國會絕不會向行政當局的越權低頭。國會將捍衛憲法賦予的“錢袋子”管理權和對我們憲政共和國十分關鍵的根本性的(權力)審查和制衡。

原文連結:

https://budget.house.gov/publications/report/impoundment-control-act-1974-what-it-why-does-it-matter

翻譯:【嫋嫋小隊長】校對:【Winston 編輯:【Winston

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Winston

12月 30日