八月份美國就業報告:失業率下降,經濟持續反彈

白宮頒佈八月就業報告,根據美國勞工統計局資料顯示證實經濟繼續強勁復蘇, 就業情況達到或好過預期。國會和政府致力於維繫雇傭關係對經濟迅速恢復起到了至關重要的作用。川普政府僅僅用4個月的時間將失業率降低了6.3個百分點,相比2008-09年經濟大蕭條之後花了差不多10年的時間才達到,這將是歷史上最快的一次經濟復蘇。

August Jobs Report: Economy Continues to Rebound As Unemployment Rate Drops

八月份就業報告:失業率下降,經濟持續反彈

September 4, 2020  

2020年9月4日

In August, America added nearly 1.4 million new jobs according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics monthly Employment Situation Report, in line with the consensus forecast. The unemployment rate fell by 1.8 percentage points to 8.4 percent, the second largest decline on record. The August jobs report confirms that the strong recovery continues.

根據美國勞工統計局月度就業狀況報告,8月份美國增加了近140萬份新工作,與普遍預期相符。失業率下降了1.8個百分點至8.4%,是有記錄以來第二大降幅。 8月份的就業報告證實經濟繼續強勁復蘇。

Just a few months ago, America had an unemployment rate of 3.5 percent—the lowest rate in 50 years—before jumping to a peak of 14.7 percent in April due to devastation wrought by COVID-19. But between April and August, the unemployment rate fell by 6.3 percentage points to 8.4 percent. For perspective, following the Great Recession of 2008-09, it took nearly a decade for the unemployment rate to fall by 6.3 percentage points. President Trump’s economy accomplished this in just four months.

就在幾個月前,美國的失業率為3.5%,為50年來最低。在此之前,由於COVID-19造成的破壞性影響,美國的失業率在4月躍升至14.7%的峰值。但在4月至8月之間,失業率下降了6.3個百分點,降至8.4%。從歷史來看,在經歷了2008-09年的大衰退之後,花了將近十年的時間才將失業率降低了6.3個百分點。(而)川普總統時代經濟在短短四個月內就實現了這一目標。

Under this Administration, America is on track to witness the fastest labor market recovery from any economic crisis in history. For four months, the employment report has met or exceeded expectations. In fact, the labor market in August performed better than what most major forecasts projected would occur by year’s end. In July, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projected a 10.5 percent unemployment rate in the fourth quarter while both Blue Chip and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) projected unemployment rates of 9.3 percent in the fourth quarter.

在當前政府的領導下,美國有望見證歷史上任何經濟危機中最快的一次勞動力市場的復蘇。四個月以來,就業報告達到或超過了預期。實際上,八月份的勞動力市場表現好於幾大主要機構的年終預測。 7月,美國國會預算辦公室(CBO)預計第四季度失業率為10.5%,而藍籌股和聯邦公開市場委員會(FOMC)則預計第四季度失業率為9.3%。

As the economy recovers, however, the path to full employment becomes tougher. In April, nearly four out of five jobs lost could be attributed to temporary layoffs, reflecting efforts by Congress and the Administration to keep workers attached to their employers. Four months later, it is apparent why an expedient recovery is vital. The number of temporary layoffs has dropped to just 50 percent as 80 percent of small businesses are now open relative to their pre-COVID-19 levels. Nonetheless, a point of strength in this report lies in the progress we have made since April. At its peak, temporary layoffs hit over 18 million. Since then, temporary layoffs have decreased to just 6 million, a recovery of nearly 67 percent.

然而,隨著經濟復蘇,實現充分就業變得越來越難。在四月份,失去的工作中有五分之四可以歸因於臨時裁員,這反映了國會和政府為維繫工人和雇主之間的雇傭關係所做的努力。四個月之後,有目共睹,這對經濟迅速恢復至關重要。隨著80%的小企業已不同程度地恢復了COVID-19疫情之前的運營,臨時裁員的數量已降低至50%。但是,本報告的重點在於我們自4月以來取得的進展。在(失業)高峰期,臨時裁員超過1800萬。自那以後,臨時裁員已降至600萬,就業率回升了近67%。

The report also shows how this bridge is particularly important for low-income and minority workers who have been hit hardest by the job losses that occurred in March and April. In August, Black American employment increased by 367,000, while employment for Hispanic Americans increased by 1 million, and gains for women increased by 1.5 million. Exemplifying the strong recovery for minority groups, since April, Black American employment has increased by nearly 1.3 million while flows into the labor force have also increased by 663,000.

本報告還顯示,此“橋樑”作用對低收入和少數族裔工人尤為重要, 他們是三月和四月間的失業潮中最受打擊的族群。八月份,美國黑人的就業人數增加了367,000,而西班牙裔美國人的就業人數增加了100萬,女性的就業增加了150萬。自從四月以來,作為少數族裔就業情況強勁復蘇的一個佐證,美國黑人的就業人數增加了近130萬,流入(就業市場的)勞動力也增加了663,000個。

(譯注:“橋樑”意指三四月失業潮期間,國會和政府為維繫工人和雇主之間的雇傭關係所做的努力,以便他們在經濟復蘇後重新就業。)

Those without a high school diploma experienced a 2.8 percentage point decrease in unemployment to a level of 12.6 percent, while those with only a high school diploma are now at an unemployment rate of 9.8 percent after experiencing a 1.0 percentage point decrease in August.

沒有高中文憑的人的失業率下降了2.8個百分點,降至12.6%,而只有高中文憑的人的失業率在8月下降了1.0個百分點後,現在為9.8%。

Just a few months ago, America faced an economic shock unlike any other. But in the face of adversity, Americans yet again showed that they will never settle for anything less than great. In July, the unemployment rate was 10.2 percent—0.2 percentage points higher than the peak unemployment rate during the Great Recession in October 2009. It took over two years at that time to achieve an unemployment rate of 8.4 percent, something Americans have now achieved in one month.

就在幾個月前,美國面臨著不同於其他任何國家的經濟衝擊。但是面對逆境,事實再次表明美國人民無懼現狀自強不息。 7月份的失業率為10.2%,比2009年10月大期間的最高失業率還高0. 2個百分點。當時花了兩年多的時間才實現8.4%的失業率, 現在美國人民僅用了一個月就實現了這一目標

With nearly half of the job losses from March and April recovered by August, this report shows that the economic comeback is underway and going strong.

本報告顯示,三月和四月流失將近一半的工作,已經在八月得到恢復,這表明經濟正在復蘇,並且勢頭強勁。

出處:https://www.whitehouse.gov/articles/august-jobs-report-economy-continues-rebound-unemployment-rate-drops/

翻譯:【一花一世界】 校對:【石頭】 編輯:【GM31

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