川普總統簽署行政令打擊破壞雕塑的犯罪行為迅速見效

川普總統在6月26日簽署行政令,公佈對故意損害聯邦財產的行為判處最高10年的監禁,已經初見成效。川普總統在28日的推文裡透露在行政令公佈之後,已經有多人因破壞公物和雕像而被拘捕,目前這種公然的破壞行為已經完全停止。

自從對破壞公物、雕像等的人判處了10年監禁後,全國各地都有人被拘捕,公然破壞行為已經完全停止。 謝謝你們!

Executive Order on Protecting American Monuments, Memorials, and Statues and Combating Recent Criminal Violence

 保護美國古跡,紀念館和雕像以及打擊近期刑事暴力的行政令

 LAW & JUSTICE

法律與司法

 Issued on: June 26, 2020

發行日期:2020年6月26日

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

根據美國憲法和美利堅合眾國法律賦予我的總統職權,現命令如下:

Section 1.  Purpose.  The first duty of government is to ensure domestic tranquility and defend the life, property, and rights of its citizens.  Over the last 5 weeks, there has been a sustained assault on the life and property of civilians, law enforcement officers, government property, and revered American monuments such as the Lincoln Memorial.  Many of the rioters, arsonists, and left-wing extremists who have carried out and supported these acts have explicitly identified themselves with ideologies — such as Marxism — that call for the destruction of the United States system of government.

第1節   目的。政府的首要職責是確保家庭安寧,捍衛其公民的生命、財產和權利。在過去的5周中,對平民、執法人員、政府財產和受人尊敬的美國古跡如林肯紀念堂的生命和財產進行了持續的襲擊。許多實施和支持這些行為的暴亂者、縱火主義者和左翼極端主義者已經明確地表明瞭自己的意識形態,諸如馬克思主義,要求破壞美國政府系統。

Anarchists and left-wing extremists have sought to advance a fringe ideology that paints the United States of America as fundamentally unjust and have sought to impose that ideology on Americans through violence and mob intimidation.  They have led riots in the streets, burned police vehicles, killed and assaulted government officers as well as business owners defending their property, and even seized an area within one city where law and order gave way to anarchy.  During the unrest, innocent citizens also have been harmed and killed.

無政府主義者和左翼極端主義者試圖發展一種邊緣主義意識形態,將美利堅合眾國描述為一個從根本上是不公正的國家,並試圖通過暴力和暴民恐嚇將這種意識形態強加給美國人民。他們製造街頭騷亂、燒毀警車、殺死和毆打政府官員以及捍衛自己財產的企業主,甚至在一個城市內佔領了一個地區,使法律與秩序讓位與無政府狀態。在動亂期間,無辜公民也受到傷害和殺害。

These criminal acts are frequently planned and supported by agitators who have traveled across State lines to promote their own violent agenda.  These radicals shamelessly attack the legitimacy of our institutions and the very rule of law itself.

這些犯罪行為通常是被跨州宣傳自己的暴力議程的煽動者們計畫和支持的。 這些激進分子無恥地攻擊了我們機構的合法性和法治本身。

Key targets in the violent extremists’ campaign against our country are public monuments, memorials, and statues.  Their selection of targets reveals a deep ignorance of our history, and is indicative of a desire to indiscriminately destroy anything that honors our past and to erase from the public mind any suggestion that our past may be worth honoring, cherishing, remembering, or understanding.  In the last week, vandals toppled a statue of President Ulysses S. Grant in San Francisco.  To them, it made no difference that President Grant led the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the Civil War, enforced Reconstruction, fought the Ku Klux Klan, and advocated for the Fifteenth Amendment, which guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.  In Charlotte, North Carolina, the names of 507 veterans memorialized on a World War II monument were painted over with a symbol of communism.  And earlier this month, in Boston, a memorial commemorating an African-American regiment that fought in the Civil War was defaced with graffiti.  In Madison, Wisconsin, rioters knocked over the statue of an abolitionist immigrant who fought for the Union during the Civil War.  Christian figures are now in the crosshairs, too.  Recently, an influential activist for one movement that has been prominent in setting the agenda for demonstrations in recent weeks declared that many existing religious depictions of Jesus and the Holy Family should be purged from our places of worship.

暴力極端分子的運動主要針對我們國家的公共紀念碑,紀念館和雕像。他們選擇的目標暴露了對我們歷史的極度無知,也表明他們想要不加區別地摧毀任何紀念我們過去的東西,並從公眾腦海中抹去任何我們過去值得紀念、珍惜、銘記或理解的東西。上周,破壞者在三藩市推倒了總統尤利西斯·s·格蘭特(Ulysses S. Grant)的雕像。對他們來說,無異于格蘭特總統領導的北方軍在內戰中戰勝了南部邦聯,實施重建、與三k黨作戰,並宣導保證解放奴隸投票權的第十五修正案,這些都沒有影響。在北卡羅來納州的夏洛特市,一座二戰紀念碑上紀念的507名退伍軍人的名字被塗上了共產主義的象徵。本月早些時候,在波士頓,一個紀念在內戰中戰鬥的非裔美國人軍團的紀念碑被塗鴉破壞。在威斯康辛州的麥迪森,騷亂者推倒了一位在內戰期間為聯邦而戰的廢奴主義移民的雕像。基督教人物現在也成了靶子。最近,一位頗有影響力的活動人士宣佈,許多現存的對耶穌和神聖家庭的宗教描述應該從我們的敬拜場所清除。該運動最近幾周在為示威活動設定議程方面一直很突出。

Individuals and organizations have the right to peacefully advocate for either the removal or the construction of any monument.  But no individual or group has the right to damage, deface, or remove any monument by use of force.

個人和組織有權和平宣導拆除或建造任何古跡。但是任何個人或團體均無權使用武力破壞、汙損或拆除任何紀念碑。

In the midst of these attacks, many State and local governments appear to have lost the ability to distinguish between the lawful exercise of rights to free speech and assembly and unvarnished vandalism.  They have surrendered to mob rule, imperiling community safety, allowing for the wholesale violation of our laws, and privileging the violent impulses of the mob over the rights of law-abiding citizens.  Worse, they apparently have lost the will or the desire to stand up to the radical fringe and defend the fundamental truth that America is good, her people are virtuous, and that justice prevails in this country to a far greater extent than anywhere else in the world.  Some particularly misguided public officials even appear to have accepted the idea that violence can be virtuous and have prevented their police from enforcing the law and protecting public monuments, memorials, and statues from the mob’s ropes and graffiti.

在這些襲擊中,許多州和地方政府似乎已經失去了辨別合法行使言論自由和集會權與不加破壞性破壞的能力。他們屈服於暴民統治、危及社區安全、允許全面違反我們的法律,並使暴民對守法公民的權利施加暴力。更糟糕的是,他們顯然已經喪失了站在極端邊緣並捍衛美國美好,人民道德高尚和正義在這個國家盛行的根本真理的意願的程度比世界上任何地方都要嚴重得多。一些受到特別誤導的公職人員甚至似乎已經接受了暴力可能是品德高尚的謬論,而且阻止了員警執行法律來保護公共紀念碑、紀念館和雕像免受暴民的繩索和塗鴉侵害的行為。

My Administration will not allow violent mobs incited by a radical fringe to become the arbiters of the aspects of our history that can be celebrated in public spaces.  State and local public officials’ abdication of their law enforcement responsibilities in deference to this violent assault must end.

我的政府將不會允許被暴力煽動的激進暴民充當我們可在公共場所慶祝的歷史各個方面的仲裁者。州和地方公職人員放棄其執法職責而保護這種暴力行為的情況必須終止。

Sec. 2.  Policy. 

第2節   政策。

(a)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that destroys, damages, vandalizes, or desecrates a monument, memorial, or statue within the United States or otherwise vandalizes government property. The desire of the Congress to protect Federal property is clearly reflected in section 1361 of title 18, United States Code, which authorizes a penalty of up to 10 years’ imprisonment for the willful injury of Federal property.  More recently, under the Veterans’ Memorial Preservation and Recognition Act of 2003, section 1369 of title 18, United States Code, the Congress punished with the same penalties the destruction of Federal and in some cases State-maintained monuments that honor military veterans. Other criminal statutes, such as the Travel Act, section 1952 of title 18, United States Code, permit prosecutions of arson damaging monuments, memorials, and statues on State grounds in some cases. Civil statutes like the Public System Resource Protection Act, section 100722 of title 54, United States Code, also hold those who destroy certain Federal property accountable for their offenses. The Federal Government will not tolerate violations of these and other laws.

(a) 美國的政策是在聯邦法律允許的最大範圍內,酌情對在美國境內破壞、損害、肆意毀壞或褻瀆紀念碑、紀念館或雕像,或以其他方式破壞政府財產的任何個人或實體進行起訴。國會保護聯邦財產的意願明確反映在《美國法典》第18篇第1361節中,授權對故意損害聯邦財產的行為判處最高10年的監禁。最近,根據《2003年退伍軍人紀念保護和認可法案》和《美國法典》第18篇第1369節,國會以同樣的刑罰懲處破壞聯邦以及某些情況下由國家維護的紀念退伍軍人的紀念碑。其他刑法,例如《旅行法案》和《美國法典》第18篇第1952節,允許在某些情況下以國家之名對破壞紀念碑、紀念館和雕像的縱火行為進行起訴。民事法規,如《公共系統資源保護法》和《美國法典》第54篇第100722節,同樣規定破壞某些聯邦財產的人應對其犯罪行為負責。聯邦政府不會容忍違反這些法律和其他法律的行為。

(b)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that participates in efforts to incite violence or other illegal activity in connection with the riots and acts of vandalism described in section 1 of this order. Numerous Federal laws, including section 2101 of title 18, United States Code, prohibit the violence that has typified the past few weeks in some cities. Other statutes punish those who participate in or assist the agitators who have coordinated these lawless acts.  Such laws include section 371 of title 18, United States Code, which criminalizes certain conspiracies to violate Federal law, section 2 of title 18, United States Code, which punishes those who aid or abet the commission of Federal crimes, and section 2339A of title 18, United States Code, which prohibits as material support to terrorism efforts to support a defined set of Federal crimes. Those who have joined in recent violent acts around the United States will be held accountable.

(b) 美國的政策是在聯邦法律允許的最大範圍內,酌情對參與本行政令第1節中描述的暴動和破壞行為有關的煽動暴力和其他非法活動的任何個人或實體進行起訴。大量聯邦法律,包括《美國法典》第18篇第2101節,都禁止過去幾周發生在一些城市的典型暴力事件。其他法規也懲那些罰參與或協助這些違法行為的煽動者。這些法律包括《美國法典》第18篇第371節,規定某些密謀違反聯邦法律定為刑事犯罪;《美國法典》第18篇第2節,對協助或教唆實施聯邦犯罪的人進行處罰,以及《美國法典》第18篇第2339A節,禁止對認定的一系列的聯邦罪行進行支援,支援內容與恐怖主義行為的實質性支持相同。近期美國各地暴力活動的參與者將被追究責任。

(c)  It is the policy of the United States to prosecute to the fullest extent permitted under Federal law, and as appropriate, any person or any entity that damages, defaces, or destroys religious property, including by attacking, removing, or defacing depictions of Jesus or other religious figures or religious art work.  Federal laws prohibit, under certain circumstances, damage or defacement of religious property, including the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996, section 247 of title 18, United States Code, and section 371 of title 18, United States Code. The Federal Government will not tolerate violations of these laws designed to protect the free exercise of religion.

(c) 美國的政策是在聯邦法律允許的最大範圍內,酌情對參與損害、汙損或破壞宗教財產的任何個人或任何實體進行起訴,包括對耶穌或其他宗教人物或宗教藝術品的攻擊、拆除或汙損描繪等行為。聯邦法律在某些情況下禁止破壞或損毀宗教財產,包括1996年的《防止教堂縱火法案》,《美國法典》第18篇第247節和《美國法典》第18篇第371節。聯邦政府將不會容忍違反旨在保護宗教自由的法律的行為。

(d)  It is the policy of the United States, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to withhold Federal support tied to public spaces from State and local governments that have failed to protect public monuments, memorials, and statues from destruction or vandalism.  These jurisdictions’ recent abandonment of their law enforcement responsibilities with respect to public monuments, memorials, and statues casts doubt on their willingness to protect other public spaces and maintain the peace within them.  These jurisdictions are not appropriate candidates for limited Federal funds that support public spaces.

(d) 美國的政策是酌情並遵循適用法律,對未能保護公共紀念碑、紀念館和雕像免遭破壞或損毀的州和地方政府,停止與公共場所相關的聯邦支持。這些司法管轄區最近放棄了對公共紀念碑、紀念館和雕像的執法職責,他們保護其他公共場所並維護其和平的意願受到懷疑。這些司法管轄區不是有限的用來支持公共場所的聯邦基金的合適候選人。

(e)  It is the policy of the United States, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to withhold Federal support from State and local law enforcement agencies that have failed to protect public monuments, memorials, and statues from destruction or vandalism. Unwillingness to enforce State and local laws in the face of attacks on our history, whether because of sympathy for the extremists behind this violence or some other improper reason, casts doubt on the management of these law enforcement agencies. These law enforcement agencies are not appropriate candidates for limited Federal funds that support State and local police.

(e) 美國的政策是酌情並遵循適用法律,對未能保護公共紀念碑、紀念館和雕像免遭破壞或損毀的州和地方的執法機構,停止與公共場所相關的聯邦支持。不願執行國家和地方法律面對對我們歷史的攻擊,無論是出於對暴力背後的極端分子的同情還是其他不正當的理由,都使這些執法機構的管理受到質疑。這些執法機構不是有限的用來支持州和當地員警的聯邦基金的合適候選人。

Sec. 3.  Enforcing Laws Prohibiting the Desecration of Public Monuments, the Vandalism of Government Property, and Recent Acts of Violence. 

第3節   執行禁止褻瀆公共紀念物、破壞政府財產和近期暴力行為的法律。

(a)  The Attorney General shall prioritize within the Department of Justice the investigation and prosecution of matters described in subsections 2(a), (b), and (c) of this order.  The Attorney General shall take all appropriate enforcement action against individuals and organizations found to have violated Federal law through these investigations.

 (a) 總檢察長應在司法部內優先調查和起訴本命令第 2(a)、(b)和(c)分節所述事項。 總檢察長應對通過這些調查發現違反聯邦法律的個人和組織採取一切適當的執法行動。

(b)  The Attorney General shall, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, work with State and local law enforcement authorities and Federal agencies to ensure the Federal Government appropriately provides information and assistance to State and local law enforcement authorities in connection with their investigations or prosecutions for the desecration of monuments, memorials, and statues, regardless of whether such structures are situated on Federal property.

(b) 總檢察長應酌情並在符合適用法律的情況下,與州和地方執法當局及聯邦機構合作,確保聯邦政府在州和地方執法當局對褻瀆紀念碑、紀念館和雕像進行調查或起訴時,向其提供適當的資訊和協助,無論這些建築物是否位於聯邦財產之上;

Sec. 4.  Limiting Federal Grants for Jurisdictions and Law Enforcement Agencies that Permit the Desecration of Monuments, Memorials, or Statues.  The heads of all executive departments and agencies shall examine their respective grant programs and apply the policies established by sections 2(d) and (e) of this order to all such programs to the extent that such application is both appropriate and consistent with applicable law.

第4節   限制對允許褻瀆紀念碑、紀念館或雕像的管轄區和執法機構的聯邦贈款。 限制向允許褻瀆紀念碑、紀念館或雕像的管轄區和執法機構提供聯邦贈款。 所有行政部門和機構的負責人應審查各自的贈款方案,並將本命令第2(d)和(e)節規定的政策適用於所有此類方案,只要這種適用是適當的,符合適用的法律。

Sec. 5.  Providing Assistance for the Protection of Federal Monuments, Memorials, Statues, and Property.  Upon the request of the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Administrator of General Services, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, personnel to assist with the protection of Federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property.  This section shall terminate 6 months from the date of this order unless extended by the President.

第5節 為保護聯邦紀念碑、紀念館、雕像和財產提供援助。 應內政部長、國土安全部部長或總務署長的要求,國防部長、司法部長和國土安全部部長應根據適用法律酌情提供人員協助保護聯邦紀念碑、紀念館、雕像或財產。 本節自本命令發佈之日起6個月後終止,除非總統延長本節有效期。

Sec. 6.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第6節 一般規定。 (a) 本命令的任何內容均不得解釋為損害或以其他方式影響:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or  法律授予行政部門或機構或其負責人的權力; 或

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals. 管理和預算辦公室主任與預算、行政或立法提案有關的職能。

(b)  This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations. 本命令的執行應符合適用的法律,並應視撥款情況而定。

(c)  This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. 本命令無意,也不會產生任何一方可在法律上或衡平法上對美國、其各部門、機構或實體、其官員、雇員或代理人或任何其他人強制執行的任何實質性或程式性權利或利益。

(d)  This order is not intended to, and does not, affect the prosecutorial discretion of the Department of Justice with respect to individual cases. 這項命令的目的不是,也不會影響司法部對個別案件的起訴裁量權。

白宮原文鏈接:https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-american-monuments-memorials-statues-combating-recent-criminal-violence/

白宮Twitter:https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1277212069868318720

翻譯:【小粉紅 】【Connor54 】【Naomi】 校對: 【Winston Jackson】【Maxton】 編輯:【GM31】

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"For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed." [John 3:20] 6月 29日