美國國防部非常規戰爭手冊(一)

翻譯:波士頓五月花 沖天一怒、mutanhuokaorou

TABLE OF CONTENTS
目錄

Foreword……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
前言
StrategicEnvironment………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
戰略環境
Irregular Warfare: An Enduring Mission and Core Competency………………………………..……….2
非常規戰爭:持久的使命和核心競爭力
ProblemStatement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
問題陳述
Central Ideal………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
中心思想
Recent Lessons Guide Our Approach …………………………………………………………………………………… 4
最近課程指導我們的方法
We Remain Underprepared for Irregular War………………………………………………….……………….4
我們對非常規戰爭準備不足
Most Military Capabilities Can Be Applied in an Irregular Context …………………………………4
大多數軍事能力可以在不規則的環境中應用
Conventional Overmatch Encourages Adversaries to Pursue Indirect Approaches…….….4
傳統的強敵鼓勵對手採取間接方法
Irregular War Requires Unified Action……………………………………………..………………………………….5
不規則戰爭需要統一行動
Recent Operations Set a Standard for an Enduring Approach ……………………………..………….5
最近的操作為持久方法設定了標準
Irregular Warfare Strategic Approach…………………………………………………………………………………….6
非常規戰戰略方法
Institutionalizing Irregular Warfare……………………………………………………………………………..………….6
將非常規戰爭制度化
Operationalizing Irregular Warfare…………..…………………………………………………………………………….7
實施非常規戰爭

FOREWORD
前言

Irregular warfare is an enduring, economical contribution to America’s national security, and will remain an essential core competency of the U.S. Department of Defense.
非常規戰爭對美國國家安全而言是一個持久且經濟的貢獻,並將繼續成為美國國防部的一項重要核心能力。

The character and form of war are constantly changing, yet its fundamental nature remains the same. Though Great Power Competition is now our primary national security challenge – a departure from conducting almost two decades of continuous irregular war against violent extremist organizations worldwide – the requirement for mastery of irregular warfare persists. Far from abandoning these critical competencies, we will sharpen these capabilities for application against peer competitor, nation-state adversaries.
戰爭的性質和形式在不斷變化,但其根本性始終不變。盡管大國競爭是我們目前主要的國家安全挑戰 – 與對全球暴力極端組織進行近二十年持續的非常規戰爭不同 – 但掌控非常規戰爭的要求仍將持續存在。我們不但不會放棄這些關鍵能力,而且會加強這些能力以用於對抗同行競爭對手、民族國家對手。

This summary of the Irregular Warfare Annex to the National Defense Strategy explains that irregular warfare is to be institutionalized as a core competency with sufficient, enduring capabilities to advance national security objectives across the spectrum of competition and conflict, in alignment with the NDS. The Department will employ these concepts and capabilities in a resource-sustainable approach to dictate the terms and tempo of competition to prevail against all global adversaries short of war, and build and sustain our global advantage in careful coordination with allies and partners. Should war come, these capabilities will shape the environment to ensure combat dominance and our ability to end any conflict on our terms.
國防戰略非常規戰爭附件的這份摘要解釋說,非正規戰爭將被制度化為一項具有足夠的、持久的核心能力,在與 NDS 保持一致的情況下,在競爭和沖突的範圍內推進國家安全目標。國防部將以資源可持續的方式運用這些概念和能力來決定競爭的條件和節奏,以次於戰爭的形式戰勝所有全球對手,並在與盟友和夥伴的細心協調下建立和維持我們的全球優勢。一旦戰爭來臨,這些能力將塑造環境,以確保戰鬥優勢和我們以自己的方式結束任何沖突的能力。

Consequently, the Department of Defense will: (1) make permanent the mindset and capabilities necessary to succeed in its current irregular warfare mission sets; and (2) leverage all irregular capabilities in our arsenal, including the unique abilities of our interagency and foreign partners, to compete against revisionist powers and violent extremist organizations alike. This approach does not require significant new resources to meet our strategic vision; it requires new ideas and new means of employing existing capabilities.
因此,國防部將:(1) 使在其當前的非常規戰爭任務系列中取得成功所需的心態和能力永久化;(2) 利用我們軍事力量中的所有非常規能力,包括我們跨機構和外國合作夥伴的獨特能力,與修正主義勢力和暴力極端主義組織等進行競爭。這種方法不需要大量的新資源來滿足我們的戰略願景;它需要新的想法和手段來使用現有的能力。

We must not — and will not — repeat the “boom and bust” cycle that has left the United States underprepared for irregular warfare in both Great Power Competition and conflict. Americans expect their military to do more than react to crises, they expect us to compete and maintain our advantages.
我們絕不能——也不會——重復致使美國在大國競爭和沖突中對非常規戰爭準備不足的“繁榮與蕭條”的循環。美國人希望他們的軍隊不僅僅對危機做出反應,更希望我們能夠力爭上游並保持優勢。

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT
戰略環境

The United States is engaged in global competition to advance U.S. interests and gain enduring strategic advantage. The Department’s approach to irregular warfare must evolve to address the full spectrum of competition and conflict against potential state adversaries, while sustaining campaigns against select nonstate actors. This summary of the Irregular Warfare Annex to the 2018 National Defense Strategy (NDS) provides a plan to institutionalize irregular warfare (IW) as an enduring core competency for the entire Joint Force. This plan is grounded in the lessons of recent conflict.
美國正在參與以促進美國的利益並獲得持久的戰略優勢的全球競爭。國防部應對非常規戰爭的方法必須發展以應對與潛在國家對手的全方位競爭和沖突,同時維持針對特定非國家行為者的活動。這份 2018 年國防戰略 (NDS) 非常規戰爭附件的摘要提供了一項將非正規戰 (IW) 制度化為整個聯合部隊的持久核心能力的計劃。該計劃以近期沖突的教訓為基礎。

Irregular Warfare: An Enduring Mission and Core Competency
非常規戰爭:持久的使命和核心能力

Irregular warfare is a struggle among state and non-state actors to influence populations and affect legitimacy. IW favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will. It includes the specific missions of unconventional warfare (UW), stabilization, foreign internal defense (FID), counterterrorism (CT), and counterinsurgency (COIN). Related activities such as military information support operations, cyberspace operations, countering threat networks, counter-threat finance, civil-military operations, and security cooperation also shape the information environment and other population-focused arenas of competition and conflict.
非常規戰爭是國家和非國家行為者之間為影響民意與合法性而進行的鬥爭。盡管它可能會使用全方位的軍事和其他能力,以削弱對手的力量、影響力和意志,但其偏愛間接和不對稱的方法。它包括非尋常戰爭 (UW)、穩定、外國內部防禦 (FID)、反恐 (CT) 和反叛亂 (COIN) 的特定任務。與其相關的活動例如軍事信息支持行動、網路空間行動、反威脅網路、反威脅金融、軍民行動和安全合作也塑造了信息環境和其他以民意為中心的競爭和沖突領域。

State adversaries and their proxies increasingly seek to prevail through their own use of irregular warfare, pursuing national objectives in the competitive space deliberately below the threshold likely to provoke a U.S. conventional response. China, Russia, and Iran are willing practitioners of campaigns of disinformation, deception, sabotage, and economic coercion, as well as proxy, guerrilla, and covert operations. This increasingly complex security environment suggests the need for a revised understanding of IW to account for its role as a component of great power competition.
國家對手及其代理人越來越多地尋求通過自己使用非常規戰爭來取勝,在競爭領域里故意用低於可能引發美國常規反應的門檻來追求國家目標。中國、俄羅斯和伊朗都是虛假信息、欺騙、破壞和經濟脅迫,以及代理、游擊和秘密行動的積極從事者。這種日益復雜的安全環境表明,需要重新理解非常規戰爭,以解釋其作為大國競爭組成部分的作用。

It is in this competitive space that the Department must innovate. We must creatively mix our traditional combat power with proactive, dynamic, and unorthodox approaches to IW that can shape, prevent, and prevail against our nation’s adversaries and maintain favorable regional balances of power alongside our key partners and allies.
國防部必須在這個競爭激烈的領域進行創新。我們必須創造性地將傳統戰鬥力與主動、動態和非正統的非常規戰爭方法相結合,以塑造、預防和戰勝我們國家的對手,並與我們的主要夥伴和盟友保持有利的地區力量平衡。

Problem Statement
問題陳述

IW is a persistent and enduring operational reality employed by non-state actors and increasingly by state actors in competition with the United States. Past U.S. approaches to IW have been cyclical and neglected the fact that IW – in addition to nuclear and conventional deterrence – can proactively shape conditions to the United States’ advantage in great power competition. This reactive cycle fails to prepare the United States to conduct traditional warfare or irregular warfare effectively. All of these conditions are reversible.
非常規戰爭是非國家行為者和越來越多的與美國競爭的國家行為者所採用的頑存和持久的作戰現實。過去美國對非常規戰爭的做法是周期性的,且忽略了這樣一個事實,即信息戰——除了核威懾和常規威懾——亦可以主動塑造條件,使美國在大國競爭中占據優勢。這種反應周期未能使美國做好有效開展傳統戰爭或非常規戰爭的準備。所有這些條件都是可逆的。

(未完待續)

原文鏈接:
Irregular-Warfare-Annex-to-the-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.PDF

(文章僅代表作者本人觀點,與Gnews 無關)

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校對:沖天一怒
編輯:jamie(文胤)
封面:霹靂鼠年
發布:吐納

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