《2021年美國創新與競爭法案》涉及中共國部分(4)

俄羅斯莫斯科喀秋莎農場 仰望七星

編輯上傳 水星

immigrationimpact.com

E部分——迎接2021年中共挑戰法案

內容提要:布朗-圖米(Brown-Toomey)修正案解決了在國家安全和金融服務領域對中共國的嚴重關切,包括敦促加強對中共國違規者使用現有的製裁授權(關於人權、網絡間諜、與朝鮮的非法貿易、芬太尼生產和分銷,以及其他問題),並對參與針對美國網絡攻擊或盜竊美國公司知識產權的中共行為實體,實施新的廣泛強制性制裁。它強調了有效實施新的反洗錢和公司透明度法律的必要性,以打擊中共國濫用匿名空殼公司的行為,並規定對物品出口管制進行審查,這物品可能被用來支持中共國侵犯人權的行為,並敦促在中共國的企業遵守行為準則。它還要求國會就一系列問題提出新的報告要求,包括從事惡意行為的中共國有企業最近是否以及在多大程度上獲得了美國納稅人資助的援助,以便為未來的決策提供信息。

制裁/保護美國國家安全

使用現有製裁授權:敦促加緊使用現有的強制性制裁授權,包括與人權、強迫勞動、經濟間諜、芬太尼生產和分銷、與朝鮮的非法貿易,以及其他問題有關的製裁授權。

打擊針對美國的網絡攻擊的製裁:旨在為打擊中共國(的行為)提供新工具,這些行為是針對美國為目標的網絡攻擊。對參與針對美國政府或私營部門網絡的網絡攻擊的中共行為者進行審查並強制實施嚴厲制裁,包括對被確定參與這一惡意活動的個人實行資產凍結和簽證禁令,以及對被確定參與或協助這一惡意活動的實體(及其公司高管)實行一系列特定清單上的製裁。

打擊知識產權盜竊的製裁措施:這項措施將要求對總統認定的、有意參與或受益於美國個人或公司重大知識產權盜竊行為的中共國個人或實體實施制裁。

防止中共國濫用匿名空殼公司:最近頒布的《2020年反洗錢法》(Money Laundering Act of 2020)和《2020年公司透明度法》(Corporate Transparency Act of 2020)概述了(規則)的基本原理,並敦促其進行有效的實施,還包括旨在打擊類似中共軍方的中共國實體濫用匿名空殼公司的規定。

加強出口管制:需要對可能被用來便利侵犯人權的物品的出口管制進行180天的審查,並確定是否需要進一步的犯罪管製或最終用途/最終用戶出口管制,來減輕這種侵犯人權行為的風險,建立與侵犯人權有關的最終用途管制的權力。

國會報告要求

包括一系列旨在塑造未來決策的新報告要求,包括中共國公司在美國可能違反反壟斷法和競爭法的情況,中共國官員侵犯人權問題,中共國實體在美國資本市場的存在,關於美中貨幣問題,在中共國發展可替代的跨境支付系統和金融信息服務,中共國政府行為體對兩用技術的使用,美國對中共國金融體系的影響,與中共國保持投資互惠的重要性,以及其他事項。
(未完待續)

文字整理:

Division E – Meeting the China Challenge Act of 2021

Executive summary: The Brown-Toomey amendment addresses critical concerns about China in the national security and financial services arena, including pressing for intensified use of existing sanctions authorities against Chinese violators (on human rights, cyber espionage, illicit trade with North Korea, fentanyl production and distribution, and other issues) and providing for broad new mandatory sanctions on Chinese actors engaged in cyberattacks against the U.S., or in the theft of intellectual property from U.S. firms. It underscores the need for effective implementation of new anti-money laundering and corporate transparency laws to combat China’s abuses of anonymous shell companies, provides for a review of export controls on items that could be used to support human rights abuses in China, and urges firms to adopt a corporate code of conduct for operating in China. It also mandates new Congressional reporting requirements on a range of issues, including on whether and to what extent Chinese state-owned enterprises engaged in malign behavior have recently received U.S. taxpayer-funded assistance, to inform future policymaking.

Sanctions/Protecting U.S. National Security

Use of Existing Sanctions Authorities: Urges the intensified use of existing mandatory sanctions authorities, including those related to human rights and forced labor, economic espionage, fentanyl production and distribution, illicit trade with North Korea, and other issues.

Sanctions to Combat Cyber Attacks Against the U.S.: Designed to provide new tools to combat Chinese cyberattacks against U.S. targets, requires a review and mandatory imposition of tough sanctions on Chinese actors engaged in cyberattacks against U.S. government or private sector networks, including an asset freeze and visa ban for individuals determined to be involved, and a range of sanctions from a specified menu for entities (and their corporate officers) determined to be knowingly involved in or facilitating this malign activity.

Sanctions to Combat Intellectual Property Theft: This measure would require imposition of sanctions against persons or entities in China determined by the President to be knowingly involved in or benefitting from significant acts of intellectual property theft from U.S. persons or firms.

Preventing Anonymous Shell Company Abuses by China: Outlines the rationale behind the recently-enacted Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020, and Corporate Transparency Act of 2020, and urges their effective implementation, including provisions designed to combat abuses of anonymous shell companies by Chinese entities such as China’s military.

Strengthening Export Controls: Requires a 180-day review of export controls on items that could be used to facilitate human rights abuses, and a determination on whether further crime control or end use/end user export controls are necessary to mitigate the risks of such abuses. Establishes authority for end use controls related to human rights abuses.

Congressional Reporting Requirements

Includes a range of new reporting requirements designed to shape future policymaking, including on potential violations of antitrust and competition laws in the U.S. by Chinese companies; on Chinese officials involved in human rights abuses; on the presence of Chinese entities in U.S. capital markets; on U.S.-China currency matters; on the development in China of alternative cross-border payment systems and financial messaging services; on the use of dual use technologies by Chinese governmental actors; on exposure of the U.S. to the financial system of China; on the importance of maintaining investment reciprocity with China, and other matters.

原文鏈接:

https://www.democrats.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/USICA%20Summary%205.18.21.pdf

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