众议院预算委员会 :《1974 年截留控制法案》是什么?为何重要?(中英对照版)

摘要:

本文为众议院预算会在2019年10月发布的对于《1974 年截留控制法案》的说明,解释法案出台的背景、目的和法案对总统撤销和延期预算的限制性规定,强调了法案目前的重要性。

Title:The Impoundment Control Act of 1974: What Is It? Why Does It Matter?

题目:《1974 年截留控制法案》是什么?为何重要?

What is the Impoundment Control Act?

The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (ICA) reasserted Congress’ power of the purse. Specifically, Title X of the Act – “Impoundment Control” – established procedures to prevent the President and other government officials from unilaterally substituting their own funding decisions for those of the Congress. The Act also created the House and Senate Budget Committees and the Congressional Budget Office.

《截留控制法案》是什么?

《1974年国会预算和截留控制法案》(以下简称ICA)强调国会对“钱袋子”的控制权,特别是法案中的X条款-“截留控制”-建立了如何阻止总统和其他政府官员单方面替代国会对资金使用决定权的程序。该法案同时创设了参众两院的预算委员会和众议院预算办公室。

Why was the ICA necessary?

Congress passed the ICA in response to President Nixon’s executive overreach – his Administration refused to release Congressionally appropriated funds for certain programs he opposed. While the U.S. Constitution broadly grants Congress the power of the purse, the President – through the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and executive agencies – is responsible for the actual spending of funds. The ICA created a process the President must follow if he or she seeks to delay or cancel funding that Congress has provided.

为什么ICA法案是必要的?

国会通过ICA法案是应对尼克松总统行政权力的扩张-他的政府拒绝为他反对的一些项目释放国会所分配的资金。美国宪法将 “钱袋子”控制权大部分赋予国会,而总统-则是通过白宫管理与预算办公室(OMB)和行政机构-负责实际实施预算。ICA法案创设了总统若试图延缓或取消国会所提供的预算时应遵从的程序。

What does it mean to ‘impound’ funds?

An “impoundment” is any action – or inaction – by an officer or employee of the federal government that precludes federal funds from being obligated1 or spent, either temporarily or permanently.

“截留”资金的含义是什么?

“截留”是指联邦政府的官员或者雇员任何主动作为或者被动不作为,暂时或者永久的阻止联邦资金法定支付义务或使用的行为。

How does the ICA work?

The ICA lays out procedures the President must follow to reduce, delay, or eliminate funding in an account. The Act divides impoundments into two categories: rescissions and deferrals.

ICA法案怎样运作?

ICA法案制定了总统在减少、延期或者取消账户资金时应遵从的一套程序。该法案将截留分为两类:撤销和延期。

Rescissions

Put simply, if the President wants to spend less money than Congress provided for a particular purpose, he or she must first secure a law providing Congressional approval to rescind the funding in question. The ICA requires that the President send a special message to Congress

identifying the amount of the proposed rescission; the reasons for it; and the budgetary, economic, and programmatic effects of the rescission. Upon transmission of such special message, the President may withhold certain funding in the affected accounts for up to 45 legislative session days. If a law approving the rescission is not enacted within the 45 days, any withheld funds must be made available for obligation.

A 2018 Government Accountability Office legal opinion holds that if the President proposes a rescission, he or she must make the affected funds available to be prudently obligated before the funds expire, even if the 45-day clock is still running. This means, for example, that the President cannot strategically time a rescission request for late in the fiscal year and withhold the funding until it expires, thus achieving a rescission without Congressional approval.

撤销

简而言之,若总统为特定目的希望减少使用国会拨付款项,总统应首先确保撤销的问题资金有法律依据并提交国会同意。ICA法案要求总统应特别致信国会:

明确所提议的取消金额,取消原因,取消对预算、经济和计划等方面的影响。在发出此特别信函后,总统可以在45个国会工作日内截留受控账户的相关资金。若在45日内,同意取消的法律未获通过,所截留的全部资金将履行义务支付。

2018年政府问责办公室法律意见书认为,若总统提出撤销,尽管45天的截留期限尚未到期,总统也必须在资金过期前将受影响的资金按义务审慎拨付,这就是说,例如,总统不能在财政年度的末期战略性提出撤销的请求,截留资金直至过期,以达到不经国会同意撤销资金的目的。

Deferrals

The ICA defines a “deferral” as withholding, delaying, or – through other Executive action or inaction – effectively precluding funding from being obligated or spent. The ICA prescribes three narrow circumstances in which the President may propose to defer funding for a program: (1) providing for contingencies; (2) achieving budgetary savings made possible through improved operational efficiency; and (3) as specifically provided by law.

The ICA requires that the President send a special message to Congress identifying the amount of the proposed deferral; the reasons for it; and the period of the proposed deferral. Upon transmission of such special message, the funds may be deferred without further action by Congress; however, the deferral cannot extend beyond the end of the fiscal year in which the special message is sent. The ICA language on deferrals is long-standing budget law that allows the Executive branch to delay the obligation or expenditure of funding only for the specified reasons rather than policy reasons.

延期

ICA法案把延期界定为截留,拖延或者通过其他的行政作为或者不作为的方式实质性的阻止资金拨付给法定义务支付对象或者使用。ICA法案设定了总统可能延期项目支付的三种有限方式:(1)可能出现的危机事件;(2)通过提升实施效率节省预算开支;(3)法律规定的特殊事项。

ICA法案要求总统向国会应特别致信国会:明确所提议延期支付的金额;延期支付原因和延期支付的时限。在发出该特别信函后,在国会没有采取进一步行动前,该资金可以被延期支付;但是,延期不能超过特别信函发出年份的财政年度结束日期。ICA法案关于延期的用语是延长预算法,该法律允许行政部门基于特定的理由而不是政策原因延期支付资金。

Why is the ICA important?

Today, 45 years after the ICA became law, Congress once again confronts a President attempting to push past the long-recognized boundaries of executive budgetary power. This year, for the second straight year, the Trump Administration reportedly considered issuing rescission requests for certain foreign aid and security assistance accounts less than 45 days before the end of the fiscal year, when the funds in question would expire. In the closing weeks of fiscal 2019, OMB withheld funding in these accounts in a manner inconsistent with longstanding procedures and policies. The House Budget and Appropriations Committees have serious concerns that President Trump and his administration violated the ICA in withholding these funds. The committees are examining when, why, and how these funds were withheld; and whether these actions prevented agencies from spending the full amount that Congress provided for these activities, thus thwarting the will of Congress. Congress will not bend to executive overreach. It will defend its constitutional power of the purse and the fundamental checks and balances that are critical to our constitutional republic.

ICA法案为什么重要?

在ICA法案通过后45年的今天,国会再次面对一位希望突破长期认可的行政权力边界的总统。今年,也是连续了两年,川普政府据称将在本财年结束不足45天时提出将一些对外援助和安全协助资金项目撤销的要求,这些有问题的资金即将过期。在2019年财政年度即将结束的最后几周,管理与预算局截留这些账户资金与长期以来的程序和政策不符。众议院预算与拨款委员会对川普总统和他的行政团队违反ICA法案表示深切忧虑。委员会正在审查这些截留资金是什么时候,是什么原因和是怎样被截留的,和这些行动是不是阻碍了相关机构全数使用国会为其活动所提供的资金,因而阻扰国会意愿。国会绝不会向行政当局的越权低头。国会将捍卫宪法赋予的“钱袋子”管理权和对我们宪政共和国十分关键的根本性的(权力)审查和制衡。

原文链接:

https://budget.house.gov/publications/report/impoundment-control-act-1974-what-it-why-does-it-matter

翻译:【袅袅小队长】校对:【Winston】 编辑:【Winston】

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Winston

12月 30日