美国六月份就业数据:新增480万个就业岗位,再破月记录!

A Record 4.8 Million Jobs Created in June, Beating Record Set Last Month

六月份破纪录创造480万个就业岗位,打破上个月记录

Our Nation’s economy has broken another record as 4.8 million jobs were added in June, bringing the economic comeback to 7.5 million jobs added over the past two months, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ June Employment Situation report.

美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics) 6月份就业形势报告显示,6月份美国新增480万个就业岗位,再创历史新高,使美国经济在过去两个月新增750万个就业岗位。

May and June rank as the two largest monthly jobs gains in history, with June’s numbers exceeding expectations once again. In June, nearly every major employment sector enjoyed a gain in jobs, with the leisure and hospitality industry seeing a gain of 2.1 million and retail trade increasing by 740,000. These gains likely reflect the reopening of State economies from May (based on the work week including May 12) through June (based on the work week including June 12).

5月和6月是历史上就业人数增幅最大的两个月,6月的数据再次超出预期。6月,几乎所有主要就业部门的岗位都有所增加,其中休闲和酒店业增加了210万,零售业增加了74万。这些增长可能反映了从5月(包括5月12日在内的工作周)到6月(包括6月12日在内的工作周)国家经济的重新开放。

Millions of Americans have felt the costs of the economic shutdown due to COVID-19, and while the speed of this recovery has far exceeded expectations, jobs have still not recovered the ground lost since the economic shutdown began. From February to April, nearly 22.2 million total jobs were lost. Over the past two months, 7.5 million (33.8 percent) of those jobs have returned. Figure 1 shows that while the leisure and hospitality industry saw the largest gains over the past two months, the industry still has 4.8 million jobs to make up to reach its pre-COVID level.

数百万计的美国人已经感受到了因新冠肺炎导致经济关闭的代价,尽管经济复苏的速度远远超过预期,但就业仍未恢复到经济关闭前的水平。从2月到4月, 近2220万个工作岗位丢失。在过去的两个月,有750万个工作岗位(33.8%)已经恢复。图1显示,休闲和酒店行业在过去两个月里取得了最大的增长,但该行业仍有480万个工作岗位需要弥补,才能达到疫情爆发前的水平。

Additionally, the BLS June Employment Situation report estimates that the overall unemployment rate fell by a record 2.2 percentage points in June to 11.1 percent, and by 3.6 percentage points over the past two months.

此外,劳工统计局6月份就业情况报告评估,6月份整体失业率下降了2.2个百分点至11.1%,在过去两个月中总共下降了3.6个百分点。

Even the 3.6 percentage point reduction in the official unemployment rate since April likely understates the actual progress made. As BLS Commissioner William Beach recently explained, the unique circumstances COVID-19 caused has led the household employment survey to misclassify some workers as “employed” who should have been classified as “unemployed” due to temporary business closures. As the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) has previously noted in our May 8th blog, addressing this issue could have resulted in an unemployment rate upward of 19 percent in April. When accounting for this misclassification, CEA finds that the unemployment rate of 19.6 percent in April has fallen to 12.3 percent as of June (see figure 2). This 7.2 percentage point reduction is twice as large as the 3.6 percentage point reduction in the official unemployment rate over the same period.

即便是4月份以来官方失业率下降3.6个百分点,可能也低估了实际进展。正如劳工统计局局长William Beach最近解释道,COVID-19病毒的独特性导致了在家庭就业调查中,将一些本因暂时停业而被归为“失业”的工人错误地归为“就业”。经济顾问委员会(CEA)此前在我们5月8日的博客中也指出,解决这个问题可能会导致4月份失业率上升至19%。由于这个错误分类,经济顾问委员会发现4月份的失业率从19.6%下降到6月份的12.3%(见图2)。这7.2个百分点的降幅是同期官方失业率3.6个百分点降幅的两倍。

来源:美国劳工统计局、经济顾问委员会                                                                                                    注意:经济顾问委员会修正失业率的计算方法是,首先将报告的因“其他原因”而未工作的就业人数与2016-2019年当月该指标的数值进行差值。然后我们将差额与报告的失业人数相加,再除以经季节性调整的劳动力。经济顾问委员会修正后的失业率没有经过季节调整。

The economic comeback has reduced unemployment across the board for several demographic groups. According to the BLS, the unemployment rate fell by 3.1 percentage points for Hispanic Americans and by 1.4 percentage points for Black Americans. In fact, Black Americans enjoyed the second largest employment gain on record, and female Black Americans over age 20 experienced the largest employment gain on record. Additionally, the female unemployment rate fell by 2.7 percentage points, which is larger than the decrease for men for the second straight month. As America’s businesses have reopened, teenagers saw a 6.7 percentage point unemployment rate reduction last month, consistent with the large job gains in the leisure and hospitality and retail trade industries.

经济复苏降低了几个人口群体的整体失业率。根据劳工统计局的数据,西班牙裔美国人的失业率下降了3.1个百分点,非裔美国人下降了1.4个百分点。事实上,非裔美国人的就业增长创历史第二,20岁以上的非裔美国女性就业增长创历史第一。此外,女性失业率下降了2.7个百分点,连续第二个月降幅超过男性失业率降幅 。随着美国企业重新开业,上月美国青年失业率下降了6.7个百分点,这与休闲、酒店和零售贸易行业大幅增加的就业岗位相符。

While June’s jobs report is undoubtedly positive news for our Nation, millions of Americans continue to suffer due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An increasing number of long-term unemployed workers remain, low-wage earners still make up a smaller portion of the labor force, and more than one in every ten workers remains unemployed. The successes in the jobs report, however, should provide a source of optimism for all Americans as we look toward the future.

6月份的就业报告对我们无疑是个好消息,但仍有数百万美国人因新冠肺炎大流行病而饱受折磨。长期失业的工人数量仍在增加,低收入者在劳动力中所占的比例仍然较小,每十个工人中就有一个以上仍处于失业状态。然而在我们展望未来的时候,就业报告中的成功应该为所有美国人提供乐观的源泉。

For two consecutive months, we have experienced the largest job gains in history, and the resilience of the American people remains strong as we have recovered roughly one-third of the COVID-related job losses from March and April. As we look ahead, we should be mindful of the work that remains, so that the forgotten Americans are forgotten no more.

连续两个月,我们经历了历史上最大的就业增长,从3月到4月,与新冠肺炎相关的失业人数已经恢复了大约三分之一,美国人民的恢复能力仍然很强。 在我们展望未来的时候,我们应该注重余下的任务,让被遗忘的美国人不再被遗忘。

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翻译:【littlepink】  校对:【文所未闻】

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“but those who hope in the Lord will renew their strength. They will soar on wings like eagles; they will run and not grow weary, they will walk and not be faint” 【Isaiah 40:31】 7月 04日