包括H-1B的多种非移民签证从6月24日起被暂停入境

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新闻简述:川普政府宣布从6月24日凌晨12:01起任何以H-1B或H-2B签证、J签证、L签证寻求入境美国的外国人以及陪同或跟随该外国人入境的所有外国人被暂停入境。以防止非移民签证对美国工人的就业构成的威胁。

Proclamation Suspending Entry of Aliens Who Present a Risk to the U.S. Labor Market Following the Coronavirus Outbreak

暂停冠状病毒爆发后对美国劳动力市场构成风险的外国人入境的公告

Issued on: June 22, 2020

颁布日期: 2020年6月22日

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) has significantly disrupted Americans’ livelihoods.  Since March 2020, United States businesses and their workers have faced extensive disruptions while undertaking certain public health measures necessary to flatten the curve of COVID-19 and reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.  The overall unemployment rate in the United States nearly quadrupled between February and May of 2020 — producing some of the most extreme unemployment ever recorded by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  While the May rate of 13.3 percent reflects a marked decline from April, millions of Americans remain out of work.

2019年新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)严重地破坏了美国人的生计。自2020年3月以来,美国企业及其工人面临着广泛的破坏,同时采取了某些必要的公共卫生措施,以使COVID-19曲线变平,并减少SARS-CoV-2(引起COVID-19的病毒)的传播。在2020年2月至5月期间,美国的总体失业率几乎翻了两番,这是劳工统计局有史以来记录的最极端的失业率。虽然5月份的13.3%的失业率跟4月份相比明显下降,但仍有数百万美国人失业。

In Proclamation 10014 of April 22, 2020 (Suspension of Entry of Immigrants Who Present a Risk to the United States Labor Market During the Economic Recovery Following the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak), I determined that, without intervention, the United States faces a potentially protracted economic recovery with persistently high unemployment if labor supply outpaces labor demand.  Consequently, I suspended, for a period of 60 days, the entry of aliens as immigrants, subject to certain exceptions.  As I noted, lawful permanent residents, once admitted pursuant to immigrant visas, are granted “open-market” employment authorization documents, allowing them immediate eligibility to compete for almost any job, in any sector of the economy.  Given that 60 days is an insufficient time period for the United States labor market, still stalled with partial social distancing measures, to rebalance, and given the lack of sufficient alternative means to protect unemployed Americans from the threat of competition for scarce jobs from new lawful permanent residents, the considerations present in Proclamation 10014 remain.

在2020年4月22日的第10014号公告(在2019年新型冠状病毒爆发后的经济复苏期间,暂停对美国劳动力市场构成风险的移民入境)中,我确定,如果不进行干预,如果劳动力供大于求,伴随着失业率的居高不下,美国将面临潜在的长期经济复苏风险。因此,除某些例外情况外,我暂停了外国人作为移民入境,为期60天。正如我所指出的那样,合法的永久居民一旦获得移民签证的批准入境,就会获得 “公开市场 “的就业授权文件,使他们立即有资格在任何经济领域竞争几乎任何工作。鉴于60天的时间不足以让美国劳动力市场重新平衡,而美国劳动力市场仍因部分社会隔离措施而停滞不前,而且缺乏足够的替代手段来保护失业的美国人免受新的合法永久居民竞争稀缺工作的威胁,第10014号公告中的考虑因素仍然存在。

In addition, pursuant to Proclamation 10014, the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Homeland Security reviewed nonimmigrant programs and found that the present admission of workers within several nonimmigrant visa categories also poses a risk of displacing and disadvantaging United States workers during the current recovery.

此外,根据第10014号公告,劳工部部长和国土安全部部长对非移民计划进行了审查,发现目前在几个非移民签证类别中接纳工人的做法,也有可能在目前的经济复苏期间顶替美国工人并使美国工人处于不利地位。

American workers compete against foreign nationals for jobs in every sector of our economy, including against millions of aliens who enter the United States to perform temporary work.  Temporary workers are often accompanied by their spouses and children, many of whom also compete against American workers.  Under ordinary circumstances, properly administered temporary worker programs can provide benefits to the economy.  But under the extraordinary circumstances of the economic contraction resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak, certain nonimmigrant visa programs authorizing such employment pose an unusual threat to the employment of American workers.

美国工人在我国每一个经济领域与外国国民竞争工作,包括与数百万进入美国从事临时工作的外国人竞争。临时工往往由其配偶和子女陪同,其中许多人也与美国工人竞争。在一般情况下,管理得当的临时工计划可以为经济带来好处。但是,在因COVID-19疫情爆发而造成经济萎缩的特殊情况下,某些授权此类就业的非移民签证方案对美国工人的就业构成了不寻常的威胁。

For example, between February and April of 2020, more than 17 million United States jobs were lost in industries in which employers are seeking to fill worker positions tied to H-2B nonimmigrant visas.  During this same period, more than 20 million United States workers lost their jobs in key industries where employers are currently requesting H-1B and L workers to fill positions.  Also, the May unemployment rate for young Americans, who compete with certain J nonimmigrant visa applicants, has been particularly high — 29.9 percent for 16 19 year olds, and 23.2 percent for the 20-24 year old group.  The entry of additional workers through the H-1B, H-2B, J, and L nonimmigrant visa programs, therefore, presents a significant threat to employment opportunities for Americans affected by the extraordinary economic disruptions caused by the COVID-19 outbreak.

例如,在2020年2月至4月期间,在雇主寻求填补与H-2B非移民签证挂钩的工人职位的行业中,美国有超过1700万个工作岗位流失。同期,在雇主目前要求H-1B和L类签证的工人填补职位的关键行业中,有超过2000万美国工人失去了工作。另外,与某些J类非移民签证申请者竞争的美国年轻人5月份的失业率也特别高,16-19岁的年轻人失业率为29.9%,20-24岁群体失业率为23.2%。因此,更多的通过H-1B、H-2B、J和L非移民签证计划入境的工人,就对受COVID-19爆发造成的异常经济混乱影响的美国人的就业机会构成了重大威胁。

As I described in Proclamation 10014, excess labor supply is particularly harmful to workers at the margin between employment and unemployment — those who are typically “last in” during an economic expansion and “first out” during an economic contraction.  In recent years, these workers have been disproportionately represented by historically disadvantaged groups, including African Americans and other minorities, those without a college degree, and Americans with disabilities.

正如我在第10014号公告中所描述的那样,过剩的劳动力供应对处于就业和失业之间的工人特别有害,这些人通常在经济扩张期间是 “最后一个进入”,在经济收缩期间是 “第一个离开”。近年来,这些工人在历史上处于不利地位的群体中的比例过高,包括非裔美国人和其他少数族裔、没有大学学历的人和美国残疾人。

In the administration of our Nation’s immigration system, we must remain mindful of the impact of foreign workers on the United States labor market, particularly in the current extraordinary environment of high domestic unemployment and depressed demand for labor.  Historically, when recovering from economic shocks that cause significant contractions in productivity, recoveries in employment lag behind improvements in economic activity.  This predictive outcome demonstrates that, assuming the conclusion of the economic contraction, the United States economy will likely require several months to return to pre-contraction economic output, and additional months to restore stable labor demand.  In light of the above, I have determined that the entry, through December 31, 2020, of certain aliens as immigrants and nonimmigrants would be detrimental to the interests of the United States.

在管理我国的移民制度时,我们必须继续注意外国工人对美国劳动力市场的影响,特别是在目前国内高失业率和劳动力需求低迷的特殊环境下。从历史上看,当从导致生产力大幅收缩的经济冲击中恢复时,就业的恢复滞后于经济活动的改善。这一预测结果表明,假设经济收缩结束,美国经济可能需要几个月的时间才能恢复到收缩前的经济产出,还需要几个月的时间才能恢复稳定的劳动力需求。鉴于上述情况,我认定,直至2020年12月31日,某些外国人以移民和非移民身份入境将损害美国的利益。

NOW, THEREFORE, I, DONALD J. TRUMP, President of the United States, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including sections 212(f) and 215(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (8 U.S.C. 1182(f) and 1185(a)) and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, hereby find that the entry into the United States of persons described in section 1 of Proclamation 10014, except as provided in section 2 of Proclamation 10014, and persons described in section 2 of this proclamation, except as provided for in section 3 of this proclamation, would be detrimental to the interests of the United States, and that their entry should be subject to certain restrictions, limitations, and exceptions.  I therefore hereby proclaim the following:

因此,我,美国总统唐纳德·川普,根据《宪法》和美利坚合众国法律,包括《移民与国籍法》第212(f)和215(a)条(8 U.S.C.1182(f)和1185(a)),和《美国法典》第3卷第301条赋予我的权力,特此认定,除第10014号公告第2条规定外,第10014号公告第1条所述人员进入美国;以及除本公告第3条规定外,本公告第2条所述人员进入美国将损害美国的利益,他们的入境应受到一定的限制、约束和例外情况。因此,我特此宣布如下:

Section 1.  Continuation of Proclamation 10014.  (a)  Section 4 of Proclamation 10014 is amended to read as follows:

第1条. 继续执行第10014号公告。(a) 第10014号公告第4条修订如下:

 “Sec. 4.  Termination.  This proclamation shall expire on December 31, 2020, and may be continued as necessary.  Within 30 days of June 24, 2020, and every 60 days thereafter while this proclamation is in effect, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Labor, recommend any modifications as may be necessary.”

“第4条。终止。本公告将于2020年12月31日到期,必要时可继续执行。在2020年6月24日之后的30天内,以及此后本公告生效期间每60天,国土安全部部长应与国务卿和劳工部部长协商,提出任何必要的修改建议。”

(b)  This section shall be effective immediately.

(b) 本条应立即生效。

Sec. 2.  Suspension and Limitation on Entry.  The entry into the United States of any alien seeking entry pursuant to any of the following nonimmigrant visas is hereby suspended and limited, subject to section 3 of this proclamation:

第2条. 暂停和限制入境。根据本公告第3条的规定,暂停和限制以下非移民签证入境的任何外国人进入美国:

  1. an H-1B or H-2B visa, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien;

(a) H-1B或H-2B签证,以及陪同或跟随加入该外国人的任何外国人;

  1. a J visa, to the extent the alien is participating in an intern, trainee, teacher, camp counselor, au pair, or summer work travel program, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien; and

(b) J签证,条件是该外国人正在参加实习生、培训生、教师、营地辅导员、互惠生或暑期工作旅行方案,以及陪同或跟随参加该外国人的任何外国人;以及

(c)  an L visa, and any alien accompanying or following to join such alien.

(c) L签证,以及陪同或跟随加入该外国人的任何外国人。

Sec. 3.  Scope of Suspension and Limitation on Entry.  (a)  The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall apply only to any alien who:

第3条。暂停和限制入境的范围。(a) 根据本公告第2条的规定,暂停和限制入境只适用于以下外国人:

(i) is outside the United States on the effective date of this proclamation;

(i) 在本公告生效之日在美国境外。

(ii) does not have a nonimmigrant visa that is valid on the effective date of this proclamation; and

(ii) 在本公告生效之日没有有效的非移民签证;以及

(iii)  does not have an official travel document other than a visa (such as a transportation letter, an appropriate boarding foil, or an advance parole document) that is valid on the effective date of this proclamation or issued on any date thereafter that permits him or her to travel to the United States and seek entry or admission.

(iii) 除签证(如运输函、适当的登机箔或提前假释文件)外,没有在本公告生效之日或其后任何日期签发的允许其前往美国并寻求入境或接纳的正式旅行证件;

(b) The suspension and limitation on entry pursuant to section 2 of this proclamation shall not apply to:

(b) 本公告第2条规定的暂停和限制入境不适用于:

(i)  any lawful permanent resident of the United States;

(i)  任何合法的美国永久居民; 

 (ii)  any alien who is the spouse or child, as defined in section 101(b)(1) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1101(b)(1)), of a United States citizen;

(ii)《移民与国籍法》(8 U.S.C.1101(b)(1))第101(b)(1) 条所界定的美国公民的配偶或子女的任何外国人。

(iii)  any alien seeking to enter the United States to provide temporary labor or services essential to the United States food supply chain; and

(iii) 任何寻求进入美国以提供对美国食品供应链至关重要的临时劳工或服务的外国人;以及

(iv)   any alien whose entry would be in the national interest as determined by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or their respective designees.

(iv)  国务卿、国土安全部部长或他们各自指定的人认定其入境符合国家利益的任何外国人;

Sec. 4.  Implementation and Enforcement.  (a)  The consular officer shall determine, in his or her discretion, whether a nonimmigrant has established his or her eligibility for an exception in section 3(b) of this proclamation.  The Secretary of State shall implement this proclamation as it applies to visas pursuant to such procedures as the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of Labor, may establish in the Secretary of State’s discretion.  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall implement this proclamation as it applies to the entry of aliens pursuant to such procedures as the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may establish in the Secretary of Homeland Security’s discretion.

第4条。实施和执行。(a) 领事官员应酌情确定非移民人士是否已符合本公告第3(b)节的例外情况。当适用于签证程序时,国务卿应根据国务卿与国土安全部部长和劳工部部长协商后酌情制定的程序,来执行本公告。当适用外国人的入境程序时,国土安全部部长应根据国土安全部部长与国务卿协商后,由国土安全部部长酌情制定的程序,执行本公告。

(i)   The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Labor, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish standards to define categories of aliens covered by section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation, including those that:  are critical to the defense, law enforcement, diplomacy, or national security of the United States; are involved with the provision of medical care to individuals who have contracted COVID-19 and are currently hospitalized; are involved with the provision of medical research at United States facilities to help the United States combat COVID-19; or are necessary to facilitate the immediate and continued economic recovery of the United States.  The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall exercise the authority under section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation and section 2(b)(iv) of Proclamation 10014 to exempt alien children who would as a result of the suspension in section 2 of this proclamation or the suspension in section 1 of Proclamation 10014 age out of eligibility for a visa.

(i)  国务卿、劳工部长和国土安全部长应制定标准,界定本公告第3(b) (iv)条所涵盖的外国人类别,包括:对美国的国防、执法、外交或国家安全至关重要;参与向感染COVID-19并正在住院的个人提供医疗服务;参与在美国设施的医疗研究,以帮助美国对抗COVID-19;或为促进美国立即和持续的经济复苏所必需。国务卿和国土安全部部长应根据本公告第3(b) (iv)条和第10014号公告第2(b) (iv)条的规定行使权力,豁免因本公告第2条暂停或第10014号公告第1条暂停而丧失签证资格的外国儿童。

(ii)  Aliens covered by section 3(b)(iv) of this proclamation, under the standards established in section 4(a)(i) of this proclamation, shall be identified by the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Homeland Security, or their respective designees, in his or her sole discretion.

(ii)  根据本公告第4(a) (i)条规定的标准,本公告第3(b) (iv)条所涵盖的外国人,应由国务卿、国土安全部部长或他们各自指定的人自行决定确认。

(b)  An alien who circumvents the application of this proclamation through fraud, willful misrepresentation of a material fact, or illegal entry shall be a priority for removal by the Department of Homeland Security.

(b) 通过欺诈、故意歪曲重要事实或非法入境等方式规避执行本公告的外国人,应被国土安全部首先驱逐。

(c)  Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to limit the ability of an individual to seek asylum, refugee status, withholding of removal, or protection under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, consistent with the laws of the United States.

(c) 本公告的任何内容均不得解释为,按照美国法律或依联合国《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》限制个人寻求庇护、难民地位、暂缓驱逐,寻求保护。

Sec. 5.  Additional Measures.  (a)  The Secretary of Health and Human Services, through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, shall, as necessary, provide guidance to the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security for implementing measures that could reduce the risk that aliens seeking admission or entry to the United States may introduce, transmit, or spread SARS-CoV-2 within the United States.

第5条。额外措施。(a) 卫生和公众服务部部长应在必要时通过疾病控制和预防中心主任向国务卿和国土安全部部长提供指导,以便采取措施,减少寻求进入或进入美国的外国人在美国境内带来、传播或扩散SARS-CoV-2的风险。

(b)  The Secretary of Labor shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security, as soon as practicable, and consistent with applicable law, consider promulgating regulations or take other appropriate action to ensure that the presence in the United States of aliens who have been admitted or otherwise provided a benefit, or who are seeking admission or a benefit, pursuant to an EB-2 or EB-3 immigrant visa or an H-1B nonimmigrant visa does not disadvantage United States workers in violation of section 212(a)(5)(A) or (n)(1) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(5)(A) or (n)(1)).  The Secretary of Labor shall also undertake, as appropriate, investigations pursuant to section 212(n)(2)(G)(i) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1182(n)(2)(G)(i)).

(b) 劳工部长应尽快与国土安全部部长协商,在符合适用法律的情况下,考虑颁布条例或采取其他适当行动,以确保根据EB-2或EB-3移民签证或H-1B非移民签证已获准入境或以其他方式获得福利,或正在寻求入境或获得福利的外国人在美国的存在不会违反《移民与国籍法》(8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(5)(A) 或 (n)(1))第212(a)(5)(A)或(n)(1)条,使美国工人处于不利地位。劳工部长也应酌情根据《移民与国籍法》(8 U.S.C. 1182(n)(2)(G)(i))第212(n)(2)(G)(i)条进行调查。

(c)  The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(c) 国土安全部长应:

(i)    take appropriate action, consistent with applicable law, in coordination with the Secretary of State, to provide that an alien should not be eligible to apply for a visa or for admission or entry into the United States or other benefit until such alien has been registered with biographical and biometric information, including but not limited to photographs, signatures, and fingerprints;

(i) 与国务卿协调,在符合适用法律的情况下,采取适当行动,规定外国人在登记了包括但不限于照片、签名和指纹在内的个人履历和生物识别信息之前,没有资格申请签证、入境或进入美国或其他福利;

(ii)   take appropriate and necessary steps, consistent with applicable law, to prevent certain aliens who have final orders of removal; who are inadmissible or deportable from the United States; or who have been arrested for, charged with, or convicted of a criminal offense in the United States, from obtaining eligibility to work in the United States; and

(ii) 在符合适用法律的情况下,采取适当和必要的步骤,防止某些已被下达最后驱离令的外国人、不可受理或可从美国驱逐出境的人、或在美国因刑事犯罪而被逮捕、指控或定罪的外国人获得在美国工作的资格;以及

(iii)  as soon as practicable, and consistent with applicable law, consider promulgating regulations or take other appropriate action regarding the efficient allocation of visas pursuant to section 214(g)(3) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1184(g)(3)) and ensuring that the presence in the United States of H-1B nonimmigrants does not disadvantage United States workers.

(iii) 在符合适用法律的情况下,在实际可行的情况下尽快考虑颁布条例或采取其他适当行动,根据《移民与国籍法》(8 U.S.C.1184(g)(3))第214(g)(3)条有效地分配签证,并确保H-1B非移民在美国的存在不会对美国工人不利;

Sec. 6.  Termination.  This proclamation shall expire on December 31, 2020, and may be continued as necessary.  Within 30 days of the effective date of this proclamation and every 60 days thereafter while this proclamation is in effect, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Labor, recommend any modifications as may be necessary.

第6条。终止。本公告将于2020年12月31日到期,必要时可继续执行。在本公告生效之日起30天内,以及本公告生效期间此后每隔60天,国土安全部部长应与国务卿和劳工部部长协商,建议任何必要的修改。

Sec. 7.  Effective Date.  Except as provided in section 1 of this proclamation, this proclamation is effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on June 24, 2020.

第7条。生效日期。除本公告第1条规定外,本公告于2020年6月24日东部夏令时间上午12:01生效。

Sec. 8.  Severability.  It is the policy of the United States to enforce this proclamation to the maximum extent possible to advance the interests of the United States.  Accordingly:

第8条。可分割性。美国的政策是尽最大可能执行本公告,以促进美国的利益。因此:

(a)  if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this proclamation and the application of its provisions to any other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby; and

(a) 如果本公告的任何条款,或任何条款对任何人或情况的适用被认定为无效,则本公告的其余部分及其条款对任何其他人或情况的适用不受影响;以及

(b)  if any provision of this proclamation, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid because of the lack of certain procedural requirements, the relevant executive branch officials shall implement those procedural requirements to conform with existing law and with any applicable court orders.

(b) 如果本公告的任何条款或任何条款对任何人或情况的适用因缺乏某些程序要求而被认为无效,有关行政部门官员应执行这些程序要求,以符合现行法律和任何适用的法院命令;

Sec. 9.  General Provisions.  (a)  Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

第9条。总则。(a) 本公告的任何内容均不得解释为损害或以其他方式影响:

(i)   the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(i) 法律授予行政部门或机构或其负责人的权力;或

(ii)  the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(ii) 管理和预算办公室主任在预算、行政或立法提案方面的职能;

(b)  This proclamation shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) 本公告的执行应符合适用的法律,并有拨款的情况下执行。

(c)  This proclamation is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) 本公告无意,也不会创造任何权利或利益,无论是任何实体上或程序上的任何权利或利益。任何一方均可在法律上或衡平法上对美国、其部门、机构或实体、其官员、雇员或代理人或任何其他人强制执行。

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-second day of June, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and forty-fourth.

DONALD J. TRUMP

我于西元2020年,即美利坚合众国独立后的第244年的6月22日在此签字,以昭信守。

唐纳德·川普

白宫原文:Proclamation Suspending Entry of Aliens Who Present a Risk to the U.S. Labor Market Following the Coronavirus Outbreak

翻译:【Ying202064】校对:【班仔】

战友之家玫瑰园小队出品

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