美国国防部非常规战争手册(一)

翻译:波士顿五月花   冲天一怒、mutanhuokaorou

TABLE OF CONTENTS

目录

Foreword……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1 

前言

StrategicEnvironment………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2 

战略环境

Irregular Warfare: An Enduring Mission and Core Competency………………………………..……….2 

非常规战争:持久的使命和核心竞争力

ProblemStatement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2 

问题陈述

Central Ideal………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 

中心思想

Recent Lessons Guide Our Approach …………………………………………………………………………………… 4 

最近课程指导我们的方法

We Remain Underprepared for Irregular    War………………………………………………….……………….4 

我们对非常规战争准备不足

Most Military Capabilities Can Be Applied in an Irregular Context …………………………………4 

大多数军事能力可以在不规则的环境中应用

Conventional Overmatch Encourages Adversaries to Pursue Indirect Approaches…….….4

传统的强敌鼓励对手采取间接方法

Irregular War Requires Unified Action……………………………………………..………………………………….5

不规则战争需要统一行动

Recent Operations Set a Standard for an Enduring Approach ……………………………..………….5

最近的操作为持久方法设定了标准

Irregular Warfare Strategic Approach…………………………………………………………………………………….6 

非常规战战略方法

Institutionalizing Irregular Warfare……………………………………………………………………………..………….6

将非常规战争制度化

Operationalizing Irregular Warfare…………..…………………………………………………………………………….7

实施非常规战争

FOREWORD

前言

Irregular warfare is an enduring, economical contribution to America’s national security, and will remain an essential core competency of the U.S. Department of Defense.

非常规战争对美国国家安全而言是一个持久且经济的贡献,并将继续成为美国国防部的一项重要核心能力。

The character and form of war are constantly changing, yet its fundamental nature remains the same. Though Great Power Competition is now our primary national security challenge – a departure from conducting almost two decades of continuous irregular war against violent extremist organizations worldwide – the requirement for mastery of irregular warfare persists. Far from abandoning these critical competencies, we will sharpen these capabilities for application against peer competitor, nation-state adversaries.

战争的性质和形式在不断变化,但其根本性始终不变。尽管大国竞争是我们目前主要的国家安全挑战 – 与对全球暴力极端组织进行近二十年持续的非常规战争不同 – 但掌控非常规战争的要求仍将持续存在。我们不但不会放弃这些关键能力,而且会加强这些能力以用于对抗同行竞争对手、民族国家对手。

This summary of the Irregular Warfare Annex to the National Defense Strategy explains that irregular warfare is to be institutionalized as a core competency with sufficient, enduring capabilities to advance national security objectives across the spectrum of competition and conflict, in alignment with the NDS. The Department will employ these concepts and capabilities in a resource-sustainable approach to dictate the terms and tempo of competition to prevail against all global adversaries short of war, and build and sustain our global advantage in careful coordination with allies and partners. Should war come, these capabilities will shape the environment to ensure combat dominance and our ability to end any conflict on our terms.

国防战略非常规战争附件的这份摘要解释说,非正规战争将被制度化为一项具有足够的、持久的核心能力,在与 NDS 保持一致的情况下,在竞争和冲突的范围内推进国家安全目标。国防部将以资源可持续的方式运用这些概念和能力来决定竞争的条件和节奏,以次于战争的形式战胜所有全球对手,并在与盟友和伙伴的细心协调下建立和维持我们的全球优势。一旦战争来临,这些能力将塑造环境,以确保战斗优势和我们以自己的方式结束任何冲突的能力。

Consequently, the Department of Defense will: (1) make permanent the mindset and capabilities necessary to succeed in its current irregular warfare mission sets; and (2) leverage all irregular capabilities in our arsenal, including the unique abilities of our interagency and foreign partners, to compete against revisionist powers and violent extremist organizations alike. This approach does not require significant new resources to meet our strategic vision; it requires new ideas and new means of employing existing capabilities.

因此,国防部将:(1) 使在其当前的非常规战争任务系列中取得成功所需的心态和能力永久化;(2) 利用我们军事力量中的所有非常规能力,包括我们跨机构和外国合作伙伴的独特能力,与修正主义势力和暴力极端主义组织等进行竞争。这种方法不需要大量的新资源来满足我们的战略愿景;它需要新的想法和手段来使用现有的能力。

We must not — and will not — repeat the “boom and bust” cycle that has left the United States underprepared for irregular warfare in both Great Power Competition and conflict. Americans expect their military to do more than react to crises, they expect us to compete and maintain our advantages.

我们绝不能——也不会——重复致使美国在大国竞争和冲突中对非常规战争准备不足的“繁荣与萧条”的循环。美国人希望他们的军队不仅仅对危机做出反应,更希望我们能够力争上游并保持优势。

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT

战略环境

The United States is engaged in global competition to advance U.S. interests and gain enduring strategic advantage. The Department’s approach to irregular warfare must evolve to address the full spectrum of competition and conflict against potential state adversaries, while sustaining campaigns against select nonstate actors. This summary of the Irregular Warfare Annex to the 2018 National Defense Strategy (NDS) provides a plan to institutionalize irregular warfare (IW) as an enduring core competency for the entire Joint Force. This plan is grounded in the lessons of recent conflict.

美国正在参与以促进美国的利益并获得持久的战略优势的全球竞争。国防部应对非常规战争的方法必须发展以应对与潜在国家对手的全方位竞争和冲突,同时维持针对特定非国家行为者的活动。这份 2018 年国防战略 (NDS) 非常规战争附件的摘要提供了一项将非正规战 (IW) 制度化为整个联合部队的持久核心能力的计划。该计划以近期冲突的教训为基础。

Irregular Warfare: An Enduring Mission and Core Competency

非常规战争:持久的使命和核心能力

Irregular warfare is a struggle among state and non-state actors to influence populations and affect legitimacy. IW favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will. It includes the specific missions of unconventional warfare (UW), stabilization, foreign internal defense (FID), counterterrorism (CT), and counterinsurgency (COIN). Related activities such as military information support operations, cyberspace operations, countering threat networks, counter-threat finance, civil-military operations, and security cooperation also shape the information environment and other population-focused arenas of competition and conflict.

非常规战争是国家和非国家行为者之间为影响民意与合法性而进行的斗争。尽管它可能会使用全方位的军事和其他能力,以削弱对手的力量、影响力和意志,但其偏爱间接和不对称的方法。它包括非寻常战争 (UW)、稳定、外国内部防御 (FID)、反恐 (CT) 和反叛乱 (COIN) 的特定任务。与其相关的活动例如军事信息支持行动、网络空间行动、反威胁网络、反威胁金融、军民行动和安全合作也塑造了信息环境和其他以民意为中心的竞争和冲突领域。

State adversaries and their proxies increasingly seek to prevail through their own use of irregular warfare, pursuing national objectives in the competitive space deliberately below the threshold likely to provoke a U.S. conventional response. China, Russia, and Iran are willing practitioners of campaigns of disinformation, deception, sabotage, and economic coercion, as well as proxy, guerrilla, and covert operations. This increasingly complex security environment suggests the need for a revised understanding of IW to account for its role as a component of great power competition.

国家对手及其代理人越来越多地寻求通过自己使用非常规战争来取胜,在竞争领域里故意用低于可能引发美国常规反应的门槛来追求国家目标。中国、俄罗斯和伊朗都是虚假信息、欺骗、破坏和经济胁迫,以及代理、游击和秘密行动的积极从事者。这种日益复杂的安全环境表明,需要重新理解非常规战争,以解释其作为大国竞争组成部分的作用。

It is in this competitive space that the Department must innovate. We must creatively mix our traditional combat power with proactive, dynamic, and unorthodox approaches to IW that can shape, prevent, and prevail against our nation’s adversaries and maintain favorable regional balances of power alongside our key partners and allies.

国防部必须在这个竞争激烈的领域进行创新。我们必须创造性地将传统战斗力与主动、动态和非正统的非常规战争方法相结合,以塑造、预防和战胜我们国家的对手,并与我们的主要伙伴和盟友保持有利的地区力量平衡。

Problem Statement

问题陈述

IW is a persistent and enduring operational reality employed by non-state actors and increasingly by state actors in competition with the United States. Past U.S. approaches to IW have been cyclical and neglected the fact that IW – in addition to nuclear and conventional deterrence – can proactively shape conditions to the United States’ advantage in great power competition. This reactive cycle fails to prepare the United States to conduct traditional warfare or irregular warfare effectively. All of these conditions are reversible.

非常规战争是非国家行为者和越来越多的与美国竞争的国家行为者所采用的顽存和持久的作战现实。过去美国对非常规战争的做法是周期性的,且忽略了这样一个事实,即信息战——除了核威慑和常规威慑——亦可以主动塑造条件,使美国在大国竞争中占据优势。这种反应周期未能使美国做好有效开展传统战争或非常规战争的准备。所有这些条件都是可逆的。

(未完待续)

原文链接:

Irregular-Warfare-Annex-to-the-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.PDF

(文章仅代表作者本人观点,与Gnews 无关)


校对:冲天一怒

编辑:jamie(文胤)

封面:霹雳鼠年

发布:吐纳

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