《2021年美国创新与竞争法案》涉及中共国部分(4)

俄罗斯莫斯科喀秋莎农场   仰望七星  

编辑上传  水星

immigrationimpact.com

E部分——迎接2021年中共挑战法案

内容提要:布朗-图米(Brown-Toomey)修正案解决了在国家安全和金融服务领域对中共国的严重关切,包括敦促加强对中共国违规者使用现有的制裁授权(关于人权、网络间谍、与朝鲜的非法贸易、芬太尼生产和分销,以及其他问题),并对参与针对美国网络攻击或盗窃美国公司知识产权的中共行为实体,实施新的广泛强制性制裁。它强调了有效实施新的反洗钱和公司透明度法律的必要性,以打击中共国滥用匿名空壳公司的行为,并规定对物品出口管制进行审查,这物品可能被用来支持中共国侵犯人权的行为,并敦促在中共国的企业遵守行为准则。它还要求国会就一系列问题提出新的报告要求,包括从事恶意行为的中共国有企业最近是否以及在多大程度上获得了美国纳税人资助的援助,以便为未来的决策提供信息。

制裁/保护美国国家安全

使用现有制裁授权:敦促加紧使用现有的强制性制裁授权,包括与人权、强迫劳动、经济间谍、芬太尼生产和分销、与朝鲜的非法贸易,以及其他问题有关的制裁授权。

打击针对美国的网络攻击的制裁:旨在为打击中共国(的行为)提供新工具,这些行为是针对美国为目标的网络攻击。对参与针对美国政府或私营部门网络的网络攻击的中共行为者进行审查并强制实施严厉制裁,包括对被确定参与这一恶意活动的个人实行资产冻结和签证禁令,以及对被确定参与或协助这一恶意活动的实体(及其公司高管)实行一系列特定清单上的制裁。

打击知识产权盗窃的制裁措施:这项措施将要求对总统认定的、有意参与或受益于美国个人或公司重大知识产权盗窃行为的中共国个人或实体实施制裁。

防止中共国滥用匿名空壳公司:最近颁布的《2020年反洗钱法》(Money Laundering Act of 2020)和《2020年公司透明度法》(Corporate Transparency Act of 2020)概述了(规则)的基本原理,并敦促其进行有效的实施,还包括旨在打击类似中共军方的中共国实体滥用匿名空壳公司的规定。

加强出口管制:需要对可能被用来便利侵犯人权的物品的出口管制进行180天的审查,并确定是否需要进一步的犯罪管制或最终用途/最终用户出口管制,来减轻这种侵犯人权行为的风险,建立与侵犯人权有关的最终用途管制的权力。

国会报告要求

包括一系列旨在塑造未来决策的新报告要求,包括中共国公司在美国可能违反反垄断法和竞争法的情况,中共国官员侵犯人权问题,中共国实体在美国资本市场的存在,关于美中货币问题,在中共国发展可替代的跨境支付系统和金融信息服务,中共国政府行为体对两用技术的使用,美国对中共国金融体系的影响,与中共国保持投资互惠的重要性,以及其他事项。

(未完待续)

文字整理:

Division E – Meeting the China Challenge Act of 2021

Executive summary: The Brown-Toomey amendment addresses critical concerns about China in the national security and financial services arena, including pressing for intensified use of existing sanctions authorities against Chinese violators (on human rights, cyber espionage, illicit trade with North Korea, fentanyl production and distribution, and other issues) and providing for broad new mandatory sanctions on Chinese actors engaged in cyberattacks against the U.S., or in the theft of intellectual property from U.S. firms. It underscores the need for effective implementation of new anti-money laundering and corporate transparency laws to combat China’s abuses of anonymous shell companies, provides for a review of export controls on items that could be used to support human rights abuses in China, and urges firms to adopt a corporate code of conduct for operating in China. It also mandates new Congressional reporting requirements on a range of issues, including on whether and to what extent Chinese state-owned enterprises engaged in malign behavior have recently received U.S. taxpayer-funded assistance, to inform future policymaking.

Sanctions/Protecting U.S. National Security

Use of Existing Sanctions Authorities: Urges the intensified use of existing mandatory sanctions authorities, including those related to human rights and forced labor, economic espionage, fentanyl production and distribution, illicit trade with North Korea, and other issues.

Sanctions to Combat Cyber Attacks Against the U.S.: Designed to provide new tools to combat Chinese cyberattacks against U.S. targets, requires a review and mandatory imposition of tough sanctions on Chinese actors engaged in cyberattacks against U.S. government or private sector networks, including an asset freeze and visa ban for individuals determined to be involved, and a range of sanctions from a specified menu for entities (and their corporate officers) determined to be knowingly involved in or facilitating this malign activity.

Sanctions to Combat Intellectual Property Theft: This measure would require imposition of sanctions against persons or entities in China determined by the President to be knowingly involved in or benefitting from significant acts of intellectual property theft from U.S. persons or firms.

Preventing Anonymous Shell Company Abuses by China: Outlines the rationale behind the recently-enacted Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020, and Corporate Transparency Act of 2020, and urges their effective implementation, including provisions designed to combat abuses of anonymous shell companies by Chinese entities such as China’s military.

Strengthening Export Controls: Requires a 180-day review of export controls on items that could be used to facilitate human rights abuses, and a determination on whether further crime control or end use/end user export controls are necessary to mitigate the risks of such abuses. Establishes authority for end use controls related to human rights abuses.

Congressional Reporting Requirements

Includes a range of new reporting requirements designed to shape future policymaking, including on potential violations of antitrust and competition laws in the U.S. by Chinese companies; on Chinese officials involved in human rights abuses; on the presence of Chinese entities in U.S. capital markets; on U.S.-China currency matters; on the development in China of alternative cross-border payment systems and financial messaging services; on the use of dual use technologies by Chinese governmental actors; on exposure of the U.S. to the financial system of China; on the importance of maintaining investment reciprocity with China, and other matters.

原文链接:

https://www.democrats.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/USICA%20Summary%205.18.21.pdf

0
0 评论
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments