美国《2021战略竞争法》第230节摘译

俄罗斯莫斯科喀秋莎农场   仰望七星

编辑上传  水星

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“副标题B——国际安全事务”的“第225节. 印度洋-太平洋地区的外国军事资助,东南亚海上安全项目和外交外联活动的拨款授权”、“第226节. 印度洋-太平洋外国军事资助契约试点项目”、”227节. 印度洋-太平洋国际军事教育和训练的额外资金”、“第228节. 优先考虑印度洋-太平洋地区过剩的国防物资转移”、“第229节. 优先考虑印度洋-太平洋地区过剩的海军舰艇转移”略译。

本节要点:国会谴责胁迫性和威胁性行动或使用武力,改变现状,或破坏印度洋-太平洋区域的稳定,敦促中共国不要在南中国海设防空识别区,不要在印度洋-太平洋地区其他地方采取类似的挑衅行动,重申中共国对南中国海大部分海域的近海资源主张是非法的,谴责中共国不遵守2016年仲裁庭的裁决,拒绝中共国对其在南沙群岛宣称的12海里衍生领海以外水域的任何主张。

欲了解更多的內容,请看本节全文(仅供参考)。

第230印度洋-太平洋国际水道和空域,以及南中国海人工特征土地海上作业自由的政策声明

(a)国会意识——国会 –

(1)谴责胁迫性和威胁性行动或使用武力,以军事或民用飞机阻碍国际空域的行动自由,改变现状,或破坏印度洋-太平洋区域的稳定;

(2)敦促中共国政府不要在南中国海设已宣布的东海防空识别区(ADIZ),或违反国际领空飞越自由的防空识别区,不要在印度洋-太平洋地区其他地方采取类似的挑衅行动;

(3)重申2016年仲裁庭的裁决是终局的,对双方都具有法律约束力,中共国对南中国海大部分海域的近海资源主张是非法的;以及

(4)谴责中共国不顾中共国作为《联合国海洋法公约》(the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)缔约国的义务,不遵守2016年仲裁庭的裁决。

(b)政策声明——美国的政策是 –

(1)重申对印太地区盟国和伙伴的承诺和支持,包括美国对《美菲共同防御条约》(the United States-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty)第五条的长期政策,重申《美日共同防御条约》(the United States-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty)第五条适用于日本管理的尖阁诸岛的立场;

(2)反对侵犯各国对海洋及其上空的权利、自由和合法使用的主张,反对将南海新的、填海特征的土地军事化;

(3)继续执行对中共国在南中国海声明的有关政策,即-
(A)中共国在南中国海(包括对南中国海大部分海域的近海资源)的主权主张是非法的;
(B)中共国不能在仲裁庭认定位于菲律宾专属经济区或其大陆架的地区,对菲律宾依法提出海事的请求;
(C)拒绝中共国对其在南沙群岛宣称的12海里衍生领海以外水域的任何主张;以及
(D)中共国对詹姆斯浅滩(James Shoal)没有合法的领土或海洋要求权;

(4)敦促所有各方不要从事破坏稳定的活动,包括非法占领或对有争议的领土进行非法管理的努力;

(5)确保在没有恐吓、胁迫或武力的情况下处理争端;

(6)呼吁所有当事国根据国际法净化或调整索取;

(7)坚持领土和海洋要求,包括领水或领海,必须根据陆地特征提出,否则必须符合国际法的原则;

(8)反对在南中国海有争议地区实施新的捕鱼规定,这些规定加剧了该地区的紧张局势;

(9)支持有效的行为守则,前提是该行为守则反映了东南亚当事国的利益,并且不是中共国提出非法海事索取的工具;

(10)重申现有的一整套国际规则和准则,包括1972年10月12日在伦敦制定的《国际海上避碰条例》(the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea,),足以确保美国武装部队与包括中共国在内的其他国家部队之间的航行安全;

(11)支持区域机构和机构的发展,包括东盟区域论坛、东盟国防部长会议附加会议、东亚首脑会议和扩大的东盟海事论坛,以在该地区建立务实合作,加强国际法的作用;

(12)鼓励深化与本区域其他国家在海洋领域认识和能力建设方面的伙伴关系,以及美国政府努力探索建立适当的多边机制,以便东南亚国家在南中国海形成“共同行动图景”,帮助各国避免破坏稳定的行为,阻止危险活动;

(13)反对任何国家采取行动,阻止任何其他国家行使对专属经济区和大陆架资源的主权权利,对南海没有国际法支持的地区提出主权要求;以及

(14)确保美国在印太地区行动的连续性,包括酌情与伙伴和盟国合作,根据国际法的既定原则和惯例,重申在国际水域和领空行动自由的原则。

(本节完)

原文链接:

https://www.foreign.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/DAV21598%20-%20Strategic%20Competition%20Act%20of%202021.pdf

文字整理:

SEC. 230. STATEMENT OF POLICY ON MARITIME FREEDOM OF OPERATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS AND AIRSPACE OF THE INDO-PACIFIC AND ON ARTIFICIAL LAND FEATURES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA.

(a) SENSE OF CONGRESS.—Congress—

(1) condemns coercive and threatening actions or the use of force to impede freedom of operations

in international airspace by military or civilian aircraft, to alter the status quo, or to destabilize the

Indo-Pacific region;

(2) urges the Government of China to refrain from implementing the declared East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), or an ADIZ in the South China Sea, which is contrary to freedom

of overflight in international airspace, and to refrain from taking similar provocative actions elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region;

(3) reaffirms that the 2016 Arbitral Tribunal’s decision is final and legally binding on both parties

and that the People’s Republic of China’s claims to offshore resources across most of the South China Sea are unlawful; and

(4) condemns the People’s Republic of China for failing to abide by the 2016 Arbitral Tribunal’s ruling, despite Chinese obligations as a state party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

(b) STATEMENT OF POLICY.—It shall be the policy of the United States to—

(1) reaffirm its commitment and support for allies and partners in the Indo-Pacific region, including longstanding United States policy regarding Article V of the United States-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty and reaffirm its position that Article V of the United States-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty applies to the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands;

(2) oppose claims that impinge on the rights, freedoms, and lawful use of the sea, or the airspace

above it, that belong to all nations, and oppose the militarization of new and reclaimed land features in the South China Sea;

(3) continue certain policies with respect to the PRC claims in the South China Sea, namely—

(A) that PRC claims in the South China Sea, including to offshore resources across most of the South China Sea, are unlawful;

(B) that the PRC cannot lawfully assert a maritime claim vis-`a-vis the Philippines in areas that the Tribunal found to be in the Philippines’ Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) or on its continental shelf;

(C) to reject any PRC claim to waters beyond a 12 nautical mile territorial sea derived from islands its claims in the Spratly Islands; and

(D) that the PRC has no lawful territorial or maritime claim to James Shoal;

(4) urge all parties to refrain from engaging in destabilizing activities, including illegal occupation or efforts to unlawfully assert administration over disputed claims;

(5) ensure that disputes are managed without intimidation, coercion, or force;

(6) call on all claimants to clarify or adjust claims in accordance with international law;

(7) uphold the principle that territorial and maritime claims, including territorial waters or territorial seas, must be derived from land features and otherwise comport with international law;

(8) oppose the imposition of new fishing regulations covering disputed areas in the South China Sea, regulations which have raised tensions in the region;

(9) support an effective Code of Conduct, if that Code of Conduct reflects the interests of South east Asian claimant states and does not serve as a vehicle for the People’s Republic of China to advance its unlawful maritime claims;

(10) reaffirm that an existing body of international rules and guidelines, including the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, done at London October 12, 1972 (COLREGs), is sufficient to ensure the safety of navigation between the United States Armed Forces and the forces of other countries, including the People’s Republic of China;

(11) support the development of regional institutions and bodies, including the ASEAN Regional Forum, the ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting Plus, the East Asia Summit, and the expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum, to build practical cooperation in the region and reinforce the role of international law;

(12) encourage the deepening of partnerships with other countries in the region for maritime domain awareness and capacity building, as well as efforts by the United States Government to explore the development of appropriate multilateral mechanisms for a ‘‘common operating picture’’ in the South China Sea among Southeast Asian countries that would serve to help countries avoid destabilizing

behavior and deter risky and dangerous activities;

(13) oppose actions by any country to prevent any other country from exercising its sovereign rights to the resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and continental shelf by making claims to those areas in the South China Sea that have no support in international law; and

(14) assure the continuity of operations by the United States in the Indo-Pacific region, including, when appropriate, in cooperation with partners and allies, to reaffirm the principle of freedom of operations in international waters and airspace in accordance with established principles and practices of international law.

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