- Editor: 文顺
- Author: 一颗星星
- Translator: Ranting
According to the history of the CCP, the Seventh National Congress of the CCP was held in Yan’an in May 1946, which was the most important congress of the CCP during the period of democratic revolution. The whole party reached an unprecedented unity based on Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought, and laid the foundation for the victory of the New Democratic Revolution in the whole country. In August 1946 Mao Zedong issued the statement “The Last Battle against the Japanese”; in 1948, the Huaihai Campaign began, the Liaoshen Campaign began, the Pingjin Campaign began; in 1949, the three major battles of Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin, the strategic policy formulated by the Central Military Commission and Mao Zedong was fully realized; in September 1949 the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, composed of 662 representatives of the Chinese Communist Party, all democratic parties, all people’s organizations, all regions, the People’s Liberation Army, all ethnic minorities, overseas Chinese and other patriotic elements, was held in Beiping; the People’s Republic of China was founded in October.
In the civil war between the Kuomintang and the CCP from 1945 to 1949, the Chinese Communist Party gained power in China. In the history of the CCP, various “instructions” and “guidelines” have been written in these years, and many glorious battles have been recorded as “worthy of bragging rights”. The “enemy” also became the KMT “reactionaries”. But leaving aside the heroically (despicable) and righteous (shameless) accounts in the history of the Chinese Communist Party, what is the real history of these years?
The collapse of Japan after the two atomic bomb strikes was much faster than expected. With the surrender of Japan, there was a fierce race between the KMT Government forces and the CCP forces, with both sides striving to be the first to reach the enemy-occupied areas to accept Japan’s surrender in order to obtain more weapons and military equipment. However, the Chinese Communist Party has a clear geographical advantage in this regard. During the years when Chiang was fighting against the Japanese invasion with all his might, the CCP established 18 “base areas” (liberated areas) in North, South and Central China, controlling a population of about 100 million, and having a regular army of one million men and a militia of two million. Under Mao’s strategy of “encircling the cities from the rural areas”, major cities such as Beiping, Tianjin, Shanghai and Nanjing became isolated islands in the rural sea. On August 9, 1945, when the collapse of Japan was imminent, Mao immediately issued an order to the CCP army that “the time for an all-out attack has come”, and Lin Biao then led a large army into the northeast.
Chiang Kai-shek, of course, did not want to let the hard-won fruits of victory be stolen by the CCP, and he immediately asked the CCP troops not to act without permission. Zhu De then denounced Chiang as “a Japanese invader and traitor” and ordered the Japanese commander-in-chief, Okamura Ningji, to surrender to the CCP army. (Shameless!!!) Since the CCP army had the geographical advantage, Chiang had no choice but to ask the United States to intercede. With the mediation of the United States, Japanese troops in Taiwan and north of the 16th parallel accepted the order to surrender only to the KMT forces (except for the Northeast). And by that time, the Northeast had been burst in by Soviet troops as far as Jehol and the Chahar hinterland, and a considerable amount of Japanese weapons had been handed over to the CCP.
On August 28, 1945, under the mediation of the United States (and the order of the Russian), Mao Zedong reluctantly flew to Chongqing to have a historic meeting with Chiang Kai-shek – the “Chongqing Talks”, which was like a big show for the international and domestic people by the CCP and the State. Chiang, whose prestige was at its zenith, had just won a battle that was close to unwinnable. In addition to having a stronger military advantage over the CCP, he also received aid and support from the United States and signed a treaty of friendship and alliance with Stalin during the same period. Chiang had endured eight years of resistance war, plus he had a deep understanding of the insidiousness and ambition of the Chinese Communist Party in the past, and he absolutely did not want to share the fruits of his victory with the Chinese Communist Party. And there was absolutely no room for compromise in the negotiations over Mao’s ambitions and his control over the CCP army and the “liberated areas” (base areas). Ultimately, the two issued a final agreement (known as the “Double Tenth Agreement”) on October 10, the negotiation failed to produce any concrete results. Yet this negotiation gave Mao a chance to stand in front of the stage and show himself. While in Chongqing, Mao met with democrats from all sides of the country and talked a lot about democracy and political consultation in the new coalition government (looking back at history, it turns out that Mao was deceiving and acting in all this). After the “Chongqing Talks”, the CCP and the KMT began preparations for a full-scale civil war.
With the end of World War II, the landscape of the world changed radically. Each of the victorious powers had its own interests to pursue, so we have to talk about the role played by the United States and the Soviet Union in the Chinese civil war.
In fact, for some time after the outbreak of the full-scale war against Japan, it was the Soviet Union that provided the most economic and military assistance to China. As already described, the Chinese resistance was able to greatly ease the pressure on the Soviet Union that had developed after Japan’s expansion in Asia. And until July 1939, the United States had been a major supplier of oil, scrap iron, and auto parts to Japan. The outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 dramatically changed the structure of international aid to China. As the United States was drawn into World War II, Roosevelt was friendly to China. He not only gave China a lot of economic and military aid, abrogated all the unequal treaties the West had made with China over the past century, and convinced Stalin and Churchill to make China one of the “Big Four” (with Churchill as Prime Minister, Britain was not friendly to the KMT government).
When President Roosevelt died in April 1945, his successor, Harry S. Truman, largely continued Roosevelt’s policy toward China, but some friction arose in his contacts with the KMT government. Faced with an imminent civil war between the CCP and the KMT, neither the United States nor the Soviet Union wanted to get involved out of concern for their own interests. At the end of 1945, Marshall, the special envoy to China, arrived in China to mediate between the two parties. In January 1946, the two parties ceased fire and organized a political consultative conference. In front of Marshall, the two parties pretended to finish the meeting and form a resolution (because neither party wanted to offend the United States). After Marshall’s return to the United States in March, the two parties tore apart, and occasional local “gunfights” soon turned into large-scale battles, and the resolution of this meeting became a dead letter.
Chiang’s misjudgment of the U.S. election led the KMT to collapse. After Roosevelt’s death, the KMT government became disillusioned with the Truman (Democratic) administration in the United States. Predicting a change of government in the 1948 U.S. elections, Chiang made every effort to befriend Republicans and gave full support to Republican candidate Dewey in terms of public opinion and funding, and Dewey promised massive financial and military aid to China after his election. Truman, however, won the election, leaving Chiang at a loss for words. This was followed by the U.S. twice refusing requests for aid from the KMT government.
Critical Northeast: When the Soviets entered the Northeast, they did not honor the Yalta Conference and the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship promise of complete withdrawal within three months. The Soviets raped and pillaged the Northeast, looted industrial plants and mines throughout the Northeast, and shipped back to the Soviet Union all the equipment the Japanese had used to build the Northeast (during the pseudo-Manchukuo). And Chiang did not heed the advice of American military experts and insisted on recapturing the northeast, committing half a million of the KMT’s most elite troops to the major cities of the northeast. During the same period, the CCP army, with the help of the Soviet Union, had taken full control of the rural areas outside these major cities. Chiang’s decision laid the groundwork for a full-scale defeat in the civil war later.
After mid-1946, Chiang Kai-shek decided to use military means to solve the CCP problem once and for all. He did not believe the warnings that the United States would not come to its aid in the civil war, and he was convinced that this time he could easily destroy the Chinese Communist Party. It was not until June 1947 that the KMT forces achieved a major victory, recovering a large part of the “liberated area” (191,000 square kilometers) occupied by the CCP and driving Mao and his Communist Central Committee out of Yan’an. However, the Chinese Communist Party was not what it used to be. During the years when Chiang was fighting against the Japanese with all his might, the CCP had established 18 “base” regimes throughout the country. And in July 1946, the size of the CCP army had reached 1.95 million. Although the size of the KMT army at that time was 3.73 million, more and more troops took up garrison duties, and the number of combat troops was reduced accordingly. Combined with the fact that the years of resistance had created an extreme sense of war weariness among the military men of the KMT government, the desire to completely destroy the Chinese Communist Party seemed to have become impossible.
In the second half of 1947, the Chinese Communist Party launched an all-out attack against the Kuomintang, and the most serious blow to the Kuomintang forces occurred in the northeast. Using the strategy of “encircling the cities from the rural areas”, Lin Biao led his army to surround several major cities in the Northeast in mid-1948. Eventually the Chinese Communist Party occupied the Northeast at the end of 1948, and the Northeast Campaign cost Chiang 470,000 of his most elite troops. (In the Northeast Campaign, the lesser-known battle was the Siege of Changchun. After a long attack on Changchun, Mao approved Lin Biao’s “siege of the city without food”, cutting off all transportation routes and blockading Changchun for more than 150 days, starving hundreds of thousands of innocent people to death).
The defeat in the Northeast unveiled the beginning of the total collapse of the KMT government. With the Huaihai and Pingjin battles, years of CCP propaganda, infiltration and counter-insurgency work came into play, and entire divisional formations of the KMT Army began to defect. General Fu Zuoyi, who was defending Beijing and Tianjin, had his city defense plan stolen by a CCP spy inside his command, making all his hopes of resistance go down the drain, and then Fu Zuoyi led 200,000 Nationalist troops to “defect”. From September 1948 to January 1949, the KMT government lost 1.5 million people in less than half a year. The KMT government was defeated ……
In April 1949, the Chinese Communist Party’s troops crossed the Yangtze River and occupied Nanjing. The KMT government fled to Guangzhou (by this time Chiang was out of office and the acting president was Li Zongren). In October Mao declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China in Beijing, and on October 13 the KMT Government fled from Guangzhou to Chongqing and on December 8 to Taiwan. After 28 years of struggle, Mao “stole” the mainland and reached the pinnacle of power.
(In addition, it must be mentioned here that in May 1946, the Seventh National Congress of the CCP was held in Yan’an, and “Mao Zedong Thought” was written into the Party Constitution under the chairmanship of Liu Shaoqi. Liu put Mao on the altar, and Mao took complete control of the Central Committee of the CCP. Liu Shaoqi’s “lick devil’s boots”, also laid the root of the disaster for his future tragic death.)
Chiang eventually failed to defeat Mao and fled to Taiwan. Having been educated inside the walls since I was a child, I had always thought that the Kuomintang was a “reactionary faction” and Chiang Kai-shek was a “dictator and a traitor to the people” for some time. As I grew older and read more history, I learned more and more about Mr. Chiang Chung-Cheng and gained a new understanding of him as a person. I once read that Mr. Chiang was described as a “lord of his generation”. Although Mr. Chiang had his weaknesses and had a “White Terror” dictatorship in Taiwan, Mr. Chiang indefatigably led the whole nation to resist foreign enemies without regret, and eventually drove out the foreign enemies and repeated the national territory, I personally think he can be called a national hero of China based on this alone.
Mao, on the other hand, understood the social structure of China at that time better than Chiang, was more adept at using propaganda and public opinion, knew how to “attack the heart”, and was able to bend and stretch and deceive. He was well versed in history and knew how to use all the favorable conditions to “fight” for his own maximum benefit. Mao’s power to deceive the world so that he finally seized the “world”.
At this point in the article, it is a “point” in the history of the development of the Chinese Communist Party. From the founding of the CCP to the victory of the Chinese Civil War, Mao led the CCP to “steal” the Chinese mainland.
From the birth of the Chinese Communist Party “parasitic” in the Kuomintang to survive, to the 25,000-mile “Long March”, to the plot to create the “Xi’an Incident” to survive when their lives were at stake, to the betrayal during the anti-Japanese period to make it grow and finally defeat the Kuomintang in the civil war …… all the way was insidious and cunning, betraying the nation, burning, killing and looting, and seizing power by all means.
To fully understand this history, readers should realize that after a thousand years of feudalism and the Xinhai Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, despite all the ups and downs, the KMT government has always been internationally recognized as a legitimate government, and the Chinese Communist Party is like a “terrorist organization” to this legitimate government. The most effective means of this organization is brainwashing and deception, using their faith to paint a beautiful vision of “democracy”. To this day, they have never achieved anything that was ever advertised at that time. The establishment of the “People’s Republic of China” has brought hundreds of millions of Chinese people into a more miserable era. Mao eventually brought China into the most tragic and darkest era in Chinese history, when “people ate each other, sold each other, and fought each other”.
Some people say that “history is written by the victors”.
But I want to tell you that “the truth of history will never change.”
Next issue: 1949~1955: The Birth of the People’s Republic of China – Prelude to the Coming of Darkness