Chinese history also follows the same process as mentioned in last part and today we are going to talk about four periods of Chinese history.
The first one is the period of Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors; Law is Dharma, or the humane way. In this period, the entire Chinese nation reached its peak in both politics and culture and the whole period was prosperous for at least 5,000 years. In terms of politics, there were two stages in ruling the country. Three Sovereigns ruled by Dao, the Way, Five Emperors ruled by De, the Virtue, and that was how the Tao Te Ching came to be. This period from Fu Xi to King Yu reached the top state, the moral high ground. The Humane Way is “With Dao to the world, right crop for right land, and rule by nature, logical and fair”. Since the world is all nature, so govern with effortless action meaning rule by Dao when all the people could reach the transcendent state, which is also that of a sage. Later, when rule by Dao failed, it took a step back to rule by virtue. Yao and Shun were the governance models in this period. Fu Xi was the shining model of Chinese culture and the primordial eight diagrams was the most significant concept.
The second one is the period of Law close to Dharma, that is, when one thing resembles another thing, but it is already out of tune, out of shape and distorted a little bit. This period started from King Yu, and included Xia, Shang and Zhou, and Zhou referred to Western Zhou, a total of 1300 years. It continued many good characteristics of the previous five emperors, and the culture of this period was relatively prosperous, but the primordial eight diagrams had receded into three I Ching, Lianshan, Guicang and Zhou Yi. The politics of this period was a big step backwards. Since King Qi of Xia, son of King Yu, initiated “one family dominates the whole nation”, it became a hereditary monarch. Even though, it also enforced feudal co-rule. A real feudal society is one in which the vassals and the emperor rule the state together. The political sinner was Qi of Xia who abolished the system of demise and democracy, and turned into a dictatorship, changed the state from public to private. The cultural sinner was King Wen of Zhou, who tampered with I Ching. At that time, both ruling by Dao and by virtue failed, and it could only rely on benevolence. Among all kings in the political governance of the family domination, the highest model is Gongdan of Zhou, not King Wen or King Wu of Zhou. Benevolent Governance played the important role in this stage, culturally it was the absence of the primordial eight diagrams and politically the dictatorship began to replace sages’ democracy, but the implementation of the family domination was still a pursuit of saintly dictatorship.
Dictatorship demands a lot from the leaders who must be absolutely competent and moral to make the dictatorship highly efficient. Democracy required quite a high quality of the population because they need to discuss and make decisions together, but if a group of people are ignorant, it is impossible to come up with a correct decision since they end up making decisions by the number of people. So, to improve the quality of democracy, people must be educated and enlightened with the Humane Way.
To be continued!
Original opinion article by Himalaya Vancouver G-farm – 2021/01/22