[3Rights’ Column] Ten Powers Unified in One Party (2) Totalitarian Ruling of the Chinese Communist Party — The Military

Author: Mr. 3Rights

Translator: TonyJ

Proofreading: Jiovanni

The Military

The CCP is a gang that started with the barrel of a gun. The first of the three major treasures of the CCP is armed struggle, the so-called “power comes from the barrel of a gun”.

In 1927, the CCP launched the Nanchang Riot and the Autumn Harvest Riot, took control of the army for the first time, and armed the area around Jinggangshan and Ruijin in southern Jiangxi province, imitating the Soviet model to establish the Soviet regime, which was actually an act of collusion with foreign forces in the armed secession of the country. The CCP then fled under the siege of the Republic of China government (later called the Long March by the Chinese Communist Party) to northern Shaanxi. During the Xi’an Incident in 1936, the Chinese Communist Party forced Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Republican government, to give up the siege of the Chinese Communist Party in the name of uniting against Japan. However, CCP did not give up the actual control of the army but instead gradually grew larger. After the end of the war, the CCP refused the Nationalist government’s offer to negotiate the nationalization of the army and insisted on controlling the army, which led to the Chinese civil war and the eventual seizure of power on the mainland with the support of Soviet Russia. Since then, the Communist Party has continued to strengthen its control over the military, firmly controlling power in China through its control of the military.

The Communist Party did not nationalize the military after the usurpation of power. Although the Constitution of the Communist Party stipulates that the State Military Committee leads the national armed forces, it also stipulates that the Party leads everything. In reality, the CCP also has a party military committee, and the CCP’s armed forces are led by the party. The military owes its allegiance not to the state or the constitution, but to the CCP, and even just to the CCP’s top leaders. In Chinese communist parlance, this means “the Party commands the gun” and “the people’s army is loyal to the Party”. There is a joke in China: If you say that Mr. Wang’s wife is loyal to Mr. Li, it is moral corruption, but if you say that the people’s army is loyal to the Party, it is political correctness.

As early as September 1927, during the “Three Ways Reformation”, the CCP imitated the Soviet military system by “building branches on companies” and establishing party organizations in companies and military units above the company level. In addition to military officers, military units above the company level also had leaders of the Party organization at the same level, usually called political commissars. The political commissar is the secretary of the Party organization in that military organization, while the military chief officer is usually the deputy secretary. The political commissar of the CCP military has the power to overrule the decisions of the military chief, and any military order is invalid without the countersignature of the political commissar, and personnel appointments and removals in the military are mainly decided by the political commissar. The CCP effectively controls the military by establishing a party organization with significant power in the military and by implementing a dual head system of military and political officers.

Another important means by which the CCP controls the military is its little-known guard system. The guards of major CCP military leaders were arranged uniformly at a higher level, and the guards of senior officers were first assigned uniformly by the Central Security Bureau and later by the Central Security Bureau and a department of the Military Commission. According to Zhang Guotao, a famous early leader of the CCP who broke away from the CCP, in his memoirs, important orders of the CCP army were given through two lines, the military chief and the political chief, but also secretly through the guard system, and the guards had the right to disarm the chief and restrict his freedom if they found that he had violated the orders of his superiors.

Because of the importance of the military in the CCP system, whoever controls the military and the guard system is the real boss, and the military plays a decisive role in the CCP’s infighting. Although CCP history says that Mao Zedong took control of the military at the Zunyi Conference in 1935, Zhang Guotao controlled a far larger army than Mao at that time. After Mao arrived in northern Shanxi, he moved Zhang’s large army to the narrow Hexi Corridor in the name of the Central Military Commission and issued several contradictory and ambiguous orders, resulting in Zhang’s large army (West Road Army) being annihilated by Ma Bufang’s cavalry in Qinghai and almost completely wiped out. After that, Zhang lost his army and was forced to defect, while Mao gradually took control of the army and gained the dominant position in the Communist Party. During the “Cultural Revolution”, Mao was also supported by Marshal Lin Biao, who was in control of the army, before he defeated Liu Shaoqi. After Mao’s death, Hua Guofeng, with the support of Wang Dongxing’s Central Security Bureau and Ye Jianying’s military group, captured the “Gang of Four” and gained leadership. Deng Xiaoping, who soon returned to power, quickly forced out Hua Guofeng, and then deposed Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang, the two party leaders who had no military power, to become the de facto top leader of the Communist Party. After Jiang Zemin became party leader, he trickily abolished the Yang brothers and Liu Huaqing, the supervisors appointed by Deng, and took full control of the military around the time of Deng’s death, before gaining actual supreme power. During Hu Jintao’s ten-year tenure as head of the party, because the military power and the Central Security Bureau have been in the hands of Jiang’s men, he has been the nominal top leader while in reality Jiang was still in control. In 2012, Xi Jinping, with the help of Biden, arrested a number of Jiang’s military leaders in the name of anti-corruption, drastically adjusted the management system of the military commission and the war zone, promoted and appointed his own cronies in the military, and became a dictator after taking control of the military.

After the Communist Party usurped power in 1949, the army played a key role in suppressing landlords, capitalists, and counterrevolutionaries, killing millions of people during the peaceful years, while these landlords and capitalists were just some hardworking and wealthy people. The so-called counter-revolutionaries were basically unarmed people whom the CCP did not like. During the Cultural Revolution, after Mao Zedong used the rebels to defeat Liu Shaoqi, he used the army to impose de facto military control over the country to prevent a civil uprising. In 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests, Deng Xiaoping also used the army to shoot down the student movement, creating the 6/4 massacres that shocked the world. The most egregious thing is that the Chinese Communist Party’s military arrested and imprisoned 2 million civilians in Xinjiang in concentration camps, which is similar to Hitler’s genocide of the Jews in World War II. In 2018, the Chinese Communist Party’s National People’s Congress amended the constitution to abolish the term of office of the president, making Xi Jinping the leader for life. Before the NPC voted to amend the constitution, in order to deter NPC deputies from casting too many negative votes and create an atmosphere of popular support, Xi arranged for dozens of military personnel to walk squarely into the venue, which was unprecedented in the history of the CCP, and the military publicly became a tool to coerce NPC deputies.

The military is an important weapon of the country, but the CCP has not only turned the military into a private weapon of one party. The national defense force has turned into a party guard, and it has become a private weapon for the top leadership of the CCP to fight within. The CCP’s control over the military is the most important basis and guarantee of the CCP’s control over China’s power and enslavement of the Chinese people.

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[3Rights’ Column] Ten Powers Unified in One Party (1) Totalitarian Ruling of the Chinese Communist Party — Power of the Party

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