Source： Foreign Affairs
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is a puppet regime of the Communist International. Ever since it stole the status as the representative of China’s sovereignty, the CCP has consistently held itself out as the legitimate representative of mainland China and the people. As such, the CCP has completely distorted the status of Taiwan (the Republic of China) as the de facto quasi-sovereign, twisted and denied the rights and historical attributes of Taiwan, and only to impose its own presumptuous definition on Taiwan. Moreover, the CCP has persistently engaged in a diplomatic siege against Taiwan in conjunction with the international dark forces and is determined to seize Taiwan by military invasion. The CCP’s ongoing paranoia and its despicable greedy face are disdained and reviled by the international community.
The CCP always believes that there are two “solid” grounds that entitle its rules and interference over Taiwan. One is based on the fact that historically speaking the mainland and Taiwan belong to one China; the other basis was Resolution 2758 passed by the 26th United Nations General Assembly on October 25, 1971.
This article will deconstruct the history of the region, UN General Assembly Resolution 2758, the nature of international law, the nature of the United Nations, and look upon the nature of the CCP, the CCP’s propaganda tactics, and other related factors to refute the CCP’s narrative.
Part 1: Deconstruction of “China’s territorial attributes and historical stance on dynasty inheritance”, “the political culture with a Chinese element”, “The history of Taiwan”, and “the nexus between Taiwan and China’s attributes”.
In response to the assertion that “Taiwan belongs to one China”, it should be clear how to define “China” and “Chinese history.” Looking back in the past, the term “China” has represented different concepts throughout the history of this region. Under certain circumstances, it is not a word that can be used at will. The concept of “China” can only be used for reference within a defined parameter.
For example, the term “China” has various usage. In practice, it could refer to different ethnic groups, or a nation, a country. Historians also define and distinguish the term “China” differently. “China” can represent a region, Han cultural country (dynasty or empire), the reign, the non-barbarian Chinese, Confucian society, political power, and sovereign state. Out of all these concepts, only “sovereign state” is has a relevant legal meaning, the rest is just referred to according to its popular nature.
The CCP has consistently taken the position that any change of dynasty and empire that occurred in the “region that belongs to the People’s Republic of China” is a history that “attributable to China”, and thus in the region where the power of these dynasties and empires had reached shall also become the “territory attributable to China.” Such a claim is extremely biased, incoherent, and ignorant.
Generally speaking, in Communist China society, the term “China” refers to the territory under the control of the People’s Republic of China, and the term “Chinese history” refers to the past dynasties and empires collectively. This has also become the basis for the CCP’s frequent clamor of “China’s territory since ancient times.” However, this is only the CCP’s own narrative, and it cannot become common knowledge in the international world.
The meaning of the word “China” in ancient times can refer to the capital where the emperor is located, or to the Huaxia and Han areas, and the dynasty with Han culture as the mainstream culture (Confucian society). Among the dynasties or empires that have appeared in the region of East Asia and Inner Asia, some were not purely Han cultural dynasties, and Han culture was only used as a tool to rule. For example, the Tang Empire was well-known as a conquering dynasty (Tuoba country) with a nomadic horse-riding ethnic group background; the Yuan Dynasty was a khanate of the Mongolian world empire, and the Han cultural region was only an area under its rules. The Qing Empire was not a dynasty with pure Han cultural attributes. When Qianlong Emperor was in power, Qing was an “Inner Asian Empire” that ruled different ethnic groups and cultural regions.
It was not until the late Qing Dynasty that the Qing empire was gradually transformed into a sovereign state with the legal attributes of modern international law after being affected by the Western order, and it was able to join the international order described in the “Universal Law”. The late Qing empire clearly called itself “China” in a modern legal form and for the first time, a status being granted under the modern nationality law. The Republic of China (ROC and also known as Taiwan today) inherited the legacy of the Qing Empire, and its political form changed from an imperial state to a republican sovereign state. Only by that point, the term “China” began to have the attributes of representing a sovereign country.
Although many dynasties called themselves “China” in the past, including the use of Han culture, essentially they were just relying upon the social customs and ritual system that imbedded in the Han culture to rule. They wanted to justify the legitimacy of their reign over the inherited dynasty. In modern international law, the reference to “China” did not share the same concept of a “sovereign state” in modern international law. Although many of these dynasties used the term “China” in official documents or during diplomatic activities, they did not use the title of “China” as their proper country name. The various names over the reign that appeared in history were to represent the very intention and distinctiveness of each ruler, rather than simply embody the essence of the “Chinese” attribute. Therefore, different dynasties and empires that have reigned over the same region can only be called the history of changing dynasties, it cannot be regarded as the history of pure Chinese attributes.
The CCP has always emphasized that the regional history is part of the dynasty-inheritance history of “Chinese attributes.” Defining the Chinese attributes of “regional history” with a “political declaration” is the argument only adopted in power politics and aggression, to stir “nationalist sentiments.” Through the induced logic, emotional manipulation, and threat, with the “heavenly law” authoritarian decree, the CCP has customarily made a dual-claim of the territorial attributes and historical attributes to the land it intends to seize.
In the CCP’s consistent efforts to maintain its “sovereign representative rights”, it has always deliberately confused the differences between concepts and meanings represented by the term “China”. When making declarations to foreign countries or to Taiwan, the CCP has consistently used a legally meaningful “concept of a sovereign state (China)” in modern international law to unify the history of a certain region, thereby embodying the legitimacy and authority of its claims. The term “China” adopted in the CCP’s narrative is often misleading as it mixed the “CCP’s paranoid historical view” with “the legal concept of a sovereign state”.
It is common in the world that the geographical and historical attributes of a region are often defined based on political premises. It is a subjective product based on self-cognition and self-interest driven. Furthermore, the CCP’s “Chinese historical view” and “Chinese regional view” promoted under its subjective “sense of power logic”, including the “Chinese nation” (to be discussed later), are essentially aimed to create a series of false propositions. They are fabricated to facilitate deception and domination, a typical form of propaganda tactics. Therefore, the CCP’s formulation of “Chinese Regional History View” is not only not objective but plain wrong.
The Communist China society and the international community often use the terms “Chinese region”, “Chinese culture”, and “Chinese dynasty” as a general way of expression. This is no different from how we often say “Western countries”, a broadly used term that is not supposed to represent anything specific or legal in nature. Therefore, to define”China” based on the “concept of a sovereign state”, the historical time limit for tracing the issue of Taiwan’s sovereignty should be from the late period of the Qing Dynasty to the present Republic of China.
Before the Han people migrated to Taiwan, Taiwan had always been an indigenous society. The natives belonged to the “Austronesian language family”, which is vastly different from the language spoken by the mainlander across the strait. During the Tang Dynasty (9th century), Han people began to move around in the Penghu Islands. During the Song Dynasty (12th century), some Han people migrated to Penghu. The Yuan Dynasty (14th century) government set up an inspection department in Penghu. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Taiwan became a den of pirates, and then the Japanese arrived in Penghu, and Taiwan started to engage in piracy activities and trades. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Dutch and Spanish occupied parts of Taiwan and established their colonial rules.
By the middle of the 17th century, Zheng Chenggong occupied Taiwan after defeating the Dutch and marked the first Han regime in Taiwan. After Zheng’s regime conceded to the Qing Dynasty, Taiwan experienced a period of passive governance under the Qing during which the indigenous people were harshly oppressed by the Han people. It was not until the 11th year under the Guangxu Emperor that Taiwan Province was established. After the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, the two sides signed the Shimonoseki Treaty, which ceded Taiwan and Penghu to Japan, and thereafter Taiwan was under Japanese rule for more than 50 years. After Japan was defeated in World War II, the Nationalist Government took over Taiwan, and the United States and its allies maintained their acquiescence. The sovereignty of Taiwan was not addressed in the subsequent “San Francisco Peace Treaty” and “China-Japan Peace Treaty.” Since the National Government moved to Taiwan in 1949, it has been confronted with the CCP regime across the strait. To this date, the CCP regime has never ruled Taiwan.
Based on the above general history of Taiwan, it can be seen that except for the indigenous community on the island, Taiwan was colonized by outsiders such as the Japanese, Europeans, and Hans over a period of time, and each of them had effectively occupied and ruled Taiwan. Therefore, a large of Taiwan’s history can be defined as the colonial history under various imperial empires, rather than a purely “regional history of Chinese attributes.” Hence, it is very wrong for the CCP to claim the “territorial sovereignty over Taiwan since ancient times”.
The above discussion helps break down the geographical and historical attributes and remove the cognitive biases formed by the past influence of authoritarian political propaganda. By doing so, we can deter and minimize nationalism, racism, and statism from arising.
Translated from: https://gnews.org/zh-hans/1586521/
(This article represents the author’s personal views only)
Publish by: Wenhong
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