Author: TCC | PR: BBT | Editor: TCC | Page: Rain
Ideally, the immune response is to get rid of a pathogen, in this case, COVID. Normally, during the first 4 to 5 days of infection, the innate (nonspecific) immune response will partially control pathogen growth. As the adaptive immune response gears up, however, it will begin to clear the pathogen from the body. These adaptive immune responses include B-cells with T-cells’ help can produce specific antibodies to certain pre-exposed pathogens.
Numerous studies published in Nature and Science have provided strong evidence that you may not need to receive vaccine jabs if you have had a COVID infection.
A study published in Nature in January 2020 (Ref. 1) has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection can induce both specific memory B-cells and long-lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells (a type of B-cells) meaning upon re-infection, these cells can rapidly produce antibodies, offering the first and the second lines of defense, respectively, and more importantly, these cells can maintain for at least 7 months post symptom onset on these previously infected patients.
The protective effect post-infection was backed up by clinical studies with large sample-sized studies. A study of a total of 12219 Health Care Workers (Ref. 2) showed prior SARS-CoV-2 infection that generated antibody responses significantly offered protection from reinfection and symptomatic for most people in the six months following initial infection. Another study of 2826 HCWs showed T-cells are responsible for the long-term protection from COVID symptoms after initial infection (Ref. 3).
A study published in Science in January 2021 has similar findings that the protection from re-infection can up to 8 months (Ref. 4). In addition, the study also identified a specific type of T-cells, that can help B-cells, with durability greater than 6 months.
Actually, an earlier study published in Nature in May 2020 (Ref. 5) showed that 23 patients recovered from SARS-1 and 36 patients recovered from SARS-CoV-2 showed 100% SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein antibodies after 17 years and at one-month follow-ups, indicating infections do induce long-lasting T-cell immunity that can protect patients from re-infection.
Because the pandemic has been around for less than 18 months, it is hard to see its long-term protective effect from re-infection. However, the 17-year long-lasting protection from previous SARS-1 infection is a piece of strong evidence.
In conclusion, both B-cell and T-cell immunity plays important roles in protecting COVID-19 infected patients from re-infections and this protection can last for a long time period. Considering potential adverse effects from antibody-dependent enhancement, vaccination after infection may not be necessary.
- Turner et. al. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans. (20201220 published)
- Lumley et. al. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection. (20201118 published)
- Wyllie et. al. SARS-CoV-2 responsive T cell numbers are associated with protection from COVID-19: A prospective cohort study in keyworkers. (20201102 published)
- Dan et. al. Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection. (20210106 published)
- Bert et. al. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls. (20200520 published)
- Click to watch the exciting video on GTV UK English
- Click here to read more articles in G-News
- Click to watch the exciting video on G-TV
Edited by：【Himalaya London Club UK】