- Author: AriesStar
- Picture: Awakener
- Translator: Ranting
The “Lushan Conference”, which is of great significance in the history of the CCP, took place in 1959, and as early as the end of 1958, Mao let it be known that, due to his advanced age and the “unbearable strain” of being two chairmen, he was going to step down as the first president of the country. According to the succession procedure at that time, Liu Shaoqi, who was a strong and experienced vice president, was the right choice.
Sure enough, in April 1959, at the Second National People’s Congress held in Beijing, Mao “humbly” withdrew from the election, and Vice President Liu was elected as the State President by unanimous vote. (Although Mao was not the President, he was still the “Chairman of the Central Committee of the CCP”, or “Party Chairman”)
It was Mao’s “humility to the virtuous” this time that made Liu completely loyal to Mao for his “graciousness”. But to Liu’s surprise, this “abdication” was only a strategy of Mao’s “power fight,” and in the opinion of many historical scholars decades later, this “Zen” was Mao’s way of bringing in Liu Shaoqi to remove his “thorn in the side” – Peng Dehuai.
In early July 1959, the CCP held a working conference in the summer resort of Lushan. The participants of the meeting were the relevant leaders of the central government and ministries and local provincial and municipal secretaries. The “Great Leap Forward” and the “communalization” campaign, which began a year ago, have caused “famine” throughout the country, and starvation has occurred.
However, the unanimous impression given to the whole country at this meeting is to “correct the deviation” and “correct the left” and correct the “three red flags” line in time. If you go too far and brake in time, you can also recover greater losses.
Therefore, with the speculation that this meeting can “correct the left”, in the middle of summer, officials from all over the country go to the summer resort to rest for a few days, go to the mountains during the day to chant poems, and sing and dance at night. (These “dance partners” were politically reliable and talented “clerical workers” who were transferred from various units of the PLA.) In this picturesque and beautiful environment, the first half of the meeting was also called the “meeting of the gods”.
In the first two weeks of the meeting, under Mao’s leadership, everyone enjoyed the beautiful scenery of Lushan, chanted poems and read books. Mao also printed his impromptu seven-character octave and distributed them to the plenary meeting. The content of the meeting was also mild and drizzle, and the poems, operas and dances were full of fun. Unexpectedly, two weeks later, the “gentle drizzle” turned into a “stormy rain”. The direction of Mao changed, the “meeting of the gods” has also become the “meeting of the devil”.
On July 14, Peng Dehuai, who wanted to see Mao to do private remonstrances several times but was turned away from interviews, submitted a letter to Mao with a “Book of Ten Thousand Words”, outlining his personal opinions on the Party Central Committee’s big steel smelting and the big office cafeteria. In the letter, he “affirmed that the Great Leap Forward had ‘losses and gains’, but on the whole the gains did not outweigh the losses.
“Large steelmaking production is limited, requiring central subsidies, subsidy of billions of dollars, exceeding the national defense budget…” The words are sincere and true. Mao then issued this “Book of Ten Thousand Words” to the General Assembly for public discussion. Participants who was not clear about the “wind direction” of the “Lushan Conference” had already come to an epiphany after holding Peng Dehuai’s “Book of Ten Thousand Words” in their hands.
Sure enough on July 23, Mao put away his smiling face and addressed the entire assembly. Repeatedly stressed that the general line and the three red flags are absolutely correct, the commune canteens must be followed, and the “two small no-guesses” (small blast furnaces and small converters) must continue. Throughout the speech, he laughed and scolded, talked about the worldview and the universe, and also talked about the “Fuck Mother” as he pleased. (As the “king of a country”, Mao is so shamelessly despicable, so that the author cannot help but sweat when reading the contents of Mao’s speech, readers interested in this meeting can refer to Li Rui’s “Lushan Conference”.)
What’s even more regrettable is that Liu Shaoqi, who was the first of the hundred officials at this time, who had just been “heaved to the sky” by Mao, and Zhou Enlai, who had been governed by Mao, had been docile, plus Lin Biao, who was later called to Lushan by Mao, unexpectedly “interrupted” from time to time in the process of Mao’s speech, to flatter Mao. Zhou, Liu, and Lin, the three heroes in the party, took the lead in flattering. Among the hundreds of other officials present at the meeting, who would dare not follow?
Just when all the more than one hundred officials attending the meeting joined the “criticism of Peng”, Mao directly held the “Eighth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the CCP” in Lushan. The Ministry of Propaganda will implement the policy and continue the “three red flags” indefinitely.
At the same time Mao also disclosed his and Peng’s old historical account, that is, since the Jiangxi era, the two of them have been “three-to-seven”, seven-point conflict, three-point cooperation. Peng has historic counter-revolutionary, anti-Maoist, and usurped old accounts of the party. Mao was about to replace him long ago… After that, Peng Dehuai, Zhang Wentian (former General Secretary of the CCP), Huang Kecheng (Chief of General Staff), Zhou Xiaozhou (No. One secretary), a “military club” that is defined as an anti-Party and counter-revolutionary is the publicization of the “right opportunist thinking” that has been lurking in the party for a long time, conspiring against the party to seize power.
Mao even claimed to lead the whole party to promote an “anti-rightist” mass movement. (Different from the “anti-rightist” after the “double-hundred”, this “anti-rightist” is aimed at the high-ranking cadres in the party headed by Peng Dehuai.)
The direction of the wind is fixed, directly “painting the ground as a prison”. The mountain guards acted immediately to “isolate and reflect” on the members of the “military club”. (The guards at the Lushan Conference were a squadron of the Central Guard Division, or “8341” unit, which accompanied Mao to the mountain.) In a small central working meeting held after the “8th Plenary Session” in Lushan, Peng was removed as Minister of National Defense and Vice Chairman of the Military Commission, and was replaced by Lin Biao.
In short, the 1959 “Lushan Conference” went all the way from the “meeting of the gods” to the “meeting of the devil”, from the “correction of the left” to the end of the “anti-right”, is out of the whole party, and even the whole country people unexpected. The key lies in the system of the Chinese Communist Party coupled with the dictatorial power of Mao, the great dictator.
The party’s “leader” can make a 180-degree turn at the drop of a hat, and the entire party has to silently follow the “U-turn”. The poor civilians also suffered from bad luck. The “famine” could not fall with Mao’s “three red flags”, and it also became more serious.